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Subject is exactly Chicago

"Fly at Your Own Risk" - David Savini - WBBM-TV (Chicago)

WBBM-TV  2007-11-01

"Undercover Journalism's Last Call" - Michael Miner - Chicago Reader

". . . The strange thing about the Mirage series is that a charge of inauthenticity did it in. It was condemned as an antic, a sleight-of-hand unworthy of journalism's highest honors. "A historic project, it had a historic fall. I found the spot in News Values where Fuller talks about the Mirage--it's in a chapter called 'Deception and Other Confidence Games.' "Fuller begins by recalling how he broke in as a police reporter, working with old-timers that Hecht and MacArthur 'used as models for characters' in The Front Page. He wasn't as wily as they were, 'but I did become a passable liar in pursuit of the truth.' "He admits to the 'thrill' he'd personally felt going undercover. 'Deception carried a hint of danger that ordinary investigative techniques simply did not have. Perhaps I sensed something forbidden about it, the secrecy, the betrayal. Or perhaps it was the recognition that deception invites rage and retribution. The feeling was not entirely pleasant, but still when it was over, I wanted to feel it again.' "That's how we talk about sin. Fuller's notion of journalistic sin is more expansive than mine, and when it occurs he's less willing to forgive it. News Values is up to the important business of setting journalism on a new foundation more honorable than the old, but Fuller sweeps undercover journalism into a bin with a lot of old-time techniques we can agree were outrageous, like stealing photos and posing as a cop. . . . "

Chicago Reader  2002-10-02

"To Investigate and Advocate" - Michael Miner - Chicago Reader

"From 1970, the year I arrived here, through 1976, the Chicago press took ten Pulitzers. Half went to writers and photographers at the Sun-Times, which has won a single Pulitzer (for Jack Higgins's cartoons in 1989) since Rupert Murdoch took over the paper in 1984. The Trib has won four Pulitzers in this century, but only one since 2003. Papers that don't win Pulitzers say they're no way to keep score, but the disdain of Pulitzer judges for papers controlled by Murdoch (and his successors, notably Conrad Black) and Sam Zell is shared by a lot of the Tribune's and Sun-Times's former readers. So many people I know buy only the New York Times that I feel like a bit of a damned fool when I say I subscribe to all three. I know what they're thinking: Well, you have to, it's your job. "Back in the day, the essential Chicago newspaper project was the hard-hitting investigation, naming names and kicking butt. Journalism is never more fun than when the facts are lined up and the presses are about to roll. Unfortunately, in desperate times publishers have awakened to the reality that serious investigations are not only very expensive but of no interest to lots of readers—which means too often we get them quick and cheesy or not at all. . . . "

Chicago Reader  2010-07-15

I- "The Jungle: A Story of Chicago" - Upton Sinclair - Appeal to Reason

"Marija was too eager to see that others conformed to the proprieties to consider them herself. She had left the church last of all, and, desiring to arrive first at the hall, had issued orders to the coachman to drive faster. When that personage had developed a will of his own in the matter, Marija had flung up the window of the carriage, and, leaning out, proceeded to tell him her opinion of him, first in Lithuanian, which he did not understand, and then in Polish, which he did."

Appeal to Reason  1905-02-25

City Slave Girls: Lyman J. Cage's Belief that a Discussion of the Subject Will Be Beneficial

"The questions you raise as to a cure for the evils pointed out in The TImes articles on wage-working girls are difficult," remarked L. J. Gage, vice president of the First National Bank.

Chicago Times  1888-09-01

City Slave Girls: Col. Abner Taylor Tells of the Good Results Following General Agitation

Col. Abner Taylor, the bachelor republican candidate for congress in the first Illinois district, said: "I don't know that legislation can do anything for work-women, except to regulate the sanitary condition of the shops and factories where they work." 

Chicago Times  1888-08-31

City Slave Girls: Judge O.H. Horton's Views on the Best Way to Improve Their Condition

Judge O.H. Horton of the circut court was on the point of starting for a fortnight's outing with fishing accompaniment at Alexandria, Minn., when informed that The Times would like to have his views on the working-girl question.

Chicago Times  1888-08-30

City Slave Girls: Mr. Charles H. Ham's Opinion of a Modern City Which Neglects Its Children

"Have you read The Times' displeasures in regard to the 'city slave girls?'" was asked of Mr. Charles H. Ham. "Yes, with absorbing interest." "What do you think of them?" "I think the subject the most important one that can engage the attention of man." 

Chicago Times  1888-08-29

City Slave Girls: Milton George Believes that Education Will Surely Solve the Wage Question

Milton George, editor of the Western Rural, an agricultural paper, was raised on a farm and loves the country, though he works in the city. "I have made a study of the labor question," he said, "more on behalf of the farmer than of the factory and shop girls, having been a farmer myself and consequently being

Chicago Times  1888-08-28

City Slave Girls: Views of a Member of the Firm of Marshall Field & Co. on Female and Child Labor

"I can say in a general way," said a member of the firm of Marshall Field & Co. "that from a mere humanitarian standpoint it pays to treat female employes humanely, show that we respect them and enable them to be self-respecting, and at the same time to pay them the highest market wages.

Chicago Times  1888-08-25

City Slave Girls: What a "Little Hell" Physician Has to Say on the Future of the Factory and Store Drudges

A Division street physician whose practice for the last twenty years has been largely among the residents of the factory disctrict in the vicinity of "Little Hell" has this to say on the future of the factory girl:

Chicago Times  1888-08-24

City Slave Girls: Dr. Charles Gilman Smith Speaks in Strong Terms on the Female and Child Labor Question

Dr. Charles Gilman Smith was just dismissing a patient from his State street office. "And you are Nell Nelson, are you?" "Yes, sir." "Well, I want to see you and have wanted for some time.  Do you know that the Times made me a world of trouble when it published my card in connection with the City SlaveGirl" articles?  

Chicago Times  1888-08-23

City Slave Girls: Charles L. Hutchinson, President of the Chicago Board of Trade on Female and Child Labor

Charles L. Hutchinson, president of the Chicago board of trade of likewise of the Corn Exchange bank, has for many years taken an active part in educational matters, especially in mission schools. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-22

City Slave Girls: Opinions of Prominent Men on How To Remedy the Great Evils of Female and Child Labor

"I can't speak as freely about female as I can male labor," said one manufaturer."Why not?"  "Well, women are different from men.  That remark is not original, but it is a basic truth and one which all employers must recognize. Without mincing matters, and confidentiality, I will say to you that women who do men's work are not worth as much as men to the employers of labor.

Chicago Times  1888-08-21

City Slave Girls: Thanks "The TImes"

The Trades and Labor assembly at its meeting yesterday indorsed the course of The Times in its crusade in behalf of the white slaves of Chicago.  A vote of thanks prevailed unanimously, with the exeption of three assembly delegates printers connected with the other papers.  The debate upon the resolutions offered lasted over an hour, the advocates of the indorsement of THE TIMES's course giving in detail the arguments for their adoption.  Their testimony corroborated the truth of the statements taht have been made in the course of the investigations.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-20

XXIII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

In the mass of letters recently received by The TIMES was the following: Chicago, Aug. 21 - To The Editor: A poor white slave wishes to thank you for your efforts in behalf of her poor sisters, the shop-girls of Chicago.  I have worked with them for four years and love them dearly.  your reporter was brave indeed when she battled with those terrible bosses.  I fled from them and left my week's work with them unpaid for.  I was a sad coward.  I , the pet sister of two brave solders who gave their lives to free the slaves of the south.  They told me to "take care of another and be good and brave" and I never saw them more.  I took care of mother till she went to her boys, and I have tried to be good, but I can not fight for my rights, and this is the case with many of us.  We will not stand up for ourselves.  Oh, you have not told half: you do know know have we have to bear.  We are indeed slaves, worse slaves than those my brothers died to free. I wish you could see my book for the last month; you would wonder how I have lived.     You have my best wishes for your goodness. May God bless you is the prayer of the white slaves.  Mary McGray -- State street.  P.S. - My hand is cramped with twenty-five years sewing. I can not write very well.      Curious to know something about the home life of the author the undersigned undertook to answer the letter in person.

Chicago Times  1888-08-27

XXII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

What the shop-girl and the factory-girl needs and must have if her welfare concerns society is training - a training that the scholastic stuffing of our public schools does not supply nor the limitation of the Sabbath schools permit.  The pupil children of 10 and 12 who at 14 and 15 swell the ranks of labor must be equipped for the battle of existence if pauper labor is to be averted.  The girl must have a sufficiency of physical culture not only to enable her to protect and preserve her health, but to promote it an to economize her strength for a future generation; she must be taught that if the injury done to her health must be atoned for by her children, and that her wifehood and motherhood is influenced and largely governed by her girlhood and young womanhood.  She must have her eyes and her fingers trained even at the expense of mentality, and some practiced science must be mastered before or in connection with the apostle's creed, the rule for at least common multiples and the population ofthe ten largest citites in the world.  If manual schools can not be opened to girls why not provide a vast kitchen garden where the bright motherly little maiden can mind real live babies, cook real dinners, knit real stockings and hoods, and hem napkins, quilts, rubber cloaks, and ragged garments that will be examined and paid for if satisfactory? 

Chicago Times  1888-08-26

XXI-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Nothing short of a Philadelphia lawyer, a Chicago health officer, a proprietor, or a "devil chaser" that hits the spot once in a thousand times could without a guide explore the labyrinth that as known as II. Schultz & Co's paper-box manufactory, 31 to 38 East Randolph street. It occupies only the three upper floors of a four story building, but the stairways are so dark and narrow that one must grope his way from somewhere to a supposititious somewhere else, which resembles nowhere when he gets there because the rooms are so overcrowded with material that one employe cannot in many instances see her nearest neighbor two yards away. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-19

XX-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Princess Knitting company: pretty name, isn't it? Done in gens d'arm blue letters on a navy-blue ground it makes an exceedingly effective sign.  The very colors suggest the claims of long descent and blue blood.  But the Princess company of West Washington street has nothing to do with the blue blood or gentle women, and there is nothing pretty about it but the sweet young girls of 15 and 16 and the frail children of 5 and 10 whose lives are being wound about the great wooden bobbins and from whose cheeks the roses of health and beauty are slowly absorbed by the flying threads in shuttle, needle, and spindle.  Princess Knitting company is only another name for the women's shirt factory at 155 West Washington street.  Up one flight of stairs I pass into a tidy little office where a fine looking gentleman gives me greeting and calls the forewoman, Mrs.McWilliams.  She is young and pretty.  Her voice is sweet and she has a good face.  "Yes, I have work but it won't pay you. You can't live on the salary.  I wouldn't advise you to take it.  The table girls only get $3 a week. Their work consists in sewing on buttons and finishing the arm-holes of the shirts.  We have generally employed little girls of 12 and 13 to do it.  Better work pays by the piece, 5 cents and 10 cents a dozen for knitting a finish about the neck and arm-holes and bottom of the shirts.  But you would have to be experienced; we couldn't tae the time to teach you."  

Chicago Times  1888-08-18

XIX-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

On the southwest corner of Washington boulevard and Union street towers a spacious brick building, onthe third floor of which Henry W. King & Co manufacture much ofthe clothing that supplies the country trade.  The place is far from uninviting.  Clean halls and well-swept stairs croclaim the faithful service of a janitor, and the girl who has worked in "other shops" blesses the man at the rope every time she rides in the neat, mirror-lined elevator.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-17

XVIII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson -Chicago Daily Times

If you want to see a snowstorm in summer, or its counterpart in appearence, go to the "separating room" of the mattress and pillow manufactory of Perren & Menzie, 353 to 261 Twentieth street. If you have any curiosity to know how it feels to be featherlined on the inside go to the same room.  One minute will do the work satisfactorily. The above suggestions are for people of poetic temperment or who think they are.  But the practical masses msut enter the "picking" and "dusting" rooms to get an intelligent idea of what a factory of that kind is.   We will go through the matterss department first.  The materials for filling are hair, fine and coarse shavings knows as "exelsior," palm-leave, corn husks, woolen and cotton rags, and grass. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-16

XVII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

In all this wide, weary, work-a-day world there is not a better, brighter, nobler girl than the one who stitches, lines, binds, and vamps your slippers and shoes.  She is a heroine if there ever was one outside of a civil or religious war.  She knows nothing of self-love, nothing of fear, and nothing of her own just rights.  Her life is made up of years of toil, months of privation, and weeks of struggling and striving to keep up with the rushing throng ravenous for her bread and envious of her miserable position.  She works from dawn almost to dusk, carrying every dollar of her earnings to some wretched home in which abide parents, brothers, and sisters often, too, relatives having absolutely no claim on her, none of whom lover her and none of whom show by word, ast, or deed that her generosity, goodness, and real nobility of soul is appreciated.

Chicago Times  1888-08-15

XVI-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

One of the white slaves of Chicago stood in the prisoner's dock at the armory police court yesterday moaning piteously.  She was young and her face was pretty.  The big policeman who stood at her side said he had arristed her for soliciting men upon the street.  She was booked as Kitty Kelly.  The frail, unfortunate girl brushed away her tears and told a story that went straight to the heart of every man in the crowded court room. She was a white slave and might have worn away her frail life sewing that her character should remain pure and unsullied, but the grinning skeleton of starvation haunter her day and night, and in desperation she sold herself to the tempter.  She was pale and thin and fierce hunger had left marks upon her young face.  "Oh judge I never did such a thing before! I never did it before! For God's sake have pity on me." and she wrung her hands in agony and sobbed convulsively.  "Nonsense," said the justice, trying to be stern. "You all say that."  "My baby! my baby! Oh what will become of her? For mercy's sake don't fine me! I have no money, not a cent.  Oh have mercy. I never was out before, surely I never was."  The big justice looked inquiringly at the big officer and the big officer said with a touch of emotion in his voice, "I never saw her before, your honor."  "Will you promise to keep off the street?" "I can't, no, I can't promise you that.  God knows I would if I could. But when I see my baby starving and there is no other way to find food for her, what else can I do?" and the wretched woman sobbed as if her heart was breaking.  The justice looked stern. Oh, sir," she sobbed, "If you only knew the misery and sorrow, the despair and degredation to which I have been humiliated, you might pity me.  I was young when I was married.  For awhile I was so happy. Then my husband sickened and died.  That was but little more than a year ago.  Soon after my baby was born.  I had no friend and no money. I was alone in this great city and no one to help me or even to give me a bit of advice. Vainly I sought for work.  I could not go into service and take my baby with me, and I could not bear the thought of parting from it.  At last I found employment in a factory.  There I made overalls and toled from morning until night, week in and week out.  But work as hard as I could, I could only earn $4 a week.  Baby took sick and I had to pay for a doctor and medicine, and it cost more than I could make."  

Chicago Times  1888-08-14

XV-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Saturday the TIMES reporter and inspector Rodgers of the health department visited more than a score of "slop-shops."  If "Little Hell" is on the North side, certianly "Little Warsaw" is on the West, and they must be labled to be readily distinguished.  As a matter of fact the latter locality is practically labeled, as the largest building in the region is the Kosclusko school, named in honor of the patriot who made Freedom shriek.  If Thaddeus' ghost were to be transported blindfolded from the heroes' hereafter back to earth and landed at the corner of Milwaukee avenue and West Division street it would feel perfectly at home.  It would find the descendents of its fleshly prototype and his companions true knights as becomes their noble heritage - "knights of the goose."  

Chicago Times  1888-08-13

XIV-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

The birthright of an American girl may be a glorious attribute on the deck of a trans-atlantic steamship or the floor of a London ball-room, but it is not worth the flop of a brass farthing in the cloak factories of Chicago.  It was high noon by the Jesuite college clock when I got to the rear of 230 West Twelfth street, where David Kafasick has his shop.  Nobody in but an old man.  His face is seamed with wrinkles: he has a big nose the color and texture of a mushroom: his head and half his face is covered with hair of chinchilla shades: his back is humped at the shoulders and his clothes are fithy and worn.  I ask for work and am told that no hands are needed.  He has a pocket that hangs across his waist and into which he puts rags, pieces of thread, hooks and eyes, pins, buttons, and the empty spools that he on the floor about the vacant machine-chairs.  I watch the silent old man as he drags his loos slippers across the floor, and behold I have the key to wealth! But it doesn't profit me worth a copper.  So I survey the premises.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-12

XIII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

"I can show you some clothing factories by the side of which those heretofore described by THE TIMES will appear as places.  If you will accompany me along South Canal, Clinton, and Jefferson streets, around Twelfth Street, you will see things that will give you an insight into the way our clothing dealers get rich and the shop-hands are compelled to be satisfied with wages that constitute less than 10 per cent of what the purchaser pays for the article."  The man who spoke these words had come to the TIMES office and offered his service in the disclosures of slave-driving in this city.  This voluntary guide was a Jew named Schlesinger.  Having worked in tailor-shops for a few years he was in a position to point out not only the causes of the prevailling misery in this branch of industry but by personal acquaintance could locate the shops in the vicinity which he considered the worst.  He confined himself to the cloak factories, and took a reporter through a dozen shops, introducing him as an operator from New York who was looking for work.  He said this ruse was necessary as otherwise the factory lords would not allow his companians inside their shops.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-11

XII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

"Do you want 'to visit a manufacturing establishment, generally held in high repute, where a girl's tenure of place depends upon the degrading concessions she may be induced to make to her employer?'" The question was put to a reporter for The TIMES by Inspector George Bodgers of the health department.  They had just formed a temporary copartnership under the name and style of "we" to make a thorough examination of the hells and holes where human beings hive, delve, and thrive or die under the guise of 'employes'. [sic] "Well, I'll tell you the story and I know it to be true and so does my wife. A girl of good development and modest demeanor had for some time been employed in a book bindery and had become fairly well-skilled.  One afternoon she turned in, as the result of her day's work, four books.  The foreman complained that the work was imperfect - in fact, that the books were spoiled, and told the girl she must pay for them.  She asked for particulars but could get little satisfaction.  She became indignant and was thrust aside.  Remembering that other mouths than hers were awaiting the food her scanty earnings must purchase she pleaded first for justice and then for mercy. "You quit work with the rest at 6 o'clock," said the foreman. "Come back fifeteen minutes later and perhaps I may straighten out your account so that you will owe nothing."  The girl, hesitating between hope and fear, crossed the bridge as if to go homeward and then returned to the office.  The foreman was at the door, welcomed her within, and turned the key.  he assured her that he had helped many of the girls in the employ of the firm to balance their accounts after business hours.  Be that as it may, he had made a grave miscalculation in this case, and in less seconds than it takes to tell it he was glad he hadn't lost the key to the door.  The girl came directly to my house, told her story, and never returned to the tiger's lair.  Her case is but one of many, and if she adheres to her present decision it will be the particular one of many before the firm and the foreman hear the last of it.  Now come with me and we'll take a trip through the binderies and printing establishments, and before we get through I'll show you the fiend who endeavored to ruin this young girl.  

Chicago Times  Friday, August 10, 1888

XI-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

It was 7 a.m. by all the whistles in "Little Hell" when I reached that section of the city in search of an opening in a slop-shop.  The streets were crowded with shop hands hurrying to their day's work - men and boys with pipes in their mouths carrying dinner pails or lunch baskets; little girls in groups of two and three in beggarly rags; young women and old women, some of them white-haired and stooped with age, wearing shawls about their heads and shoulders and the meanest apologies for shoes.  Many girls were bare-headed and some went through the streets in old skirts and dilapidated waists that had neither collar nor sleeves.   At the corner of Elm and Wesson streets is an immense tailor shop into which the girls fairly swarmed, some going into the main and some into the rear building. Both buildings have three stories, each containing a shop under a different "boss." I followed the crowd through both buildings beginning in the basement and going up and up and up the narrow, dirty covered stairs, stopping on each floor to see the "boss" and apply for work.  No success.  The vest shops were full and so were the trousers shops.  In the jacket shop there was room for experienced hands only at the munificent salary of $3 a week.  The garments were cut and the sewer had the entire making.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-09

X-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

For dismal surroundings, economy of comforts, and heartless treatment, to the Boston store belongs the palm.  I did not work in that establishment although I tried very hard to do so.  I was in the store at 8 o'clock on Friday morning as arranged with Mr. Hillman, who had partially promised to hire me.  "One of the girls in the hoisery department," he had said "is sick, and if she doesn't come back Friday morning I will try you."  I could not find the gentleman, although I hunted the main floor and the floors above and below.  My plan of fluctuation was to take the elevator up one story and walk down, and then ride up two and walk down the third flight, in that way I took in the entire store and a great part of the employees.  I began at the bottom and spent a full hour in the basement, where I saw so much and suffered so much that the upper floors had no surprised for me.  In the first place the atmosphere was almost unendurable.   Hot! It must have been 100 degrees above! Out in the open air not a breeze was stirring and the heat was sizzling.  Down where I was I could not see a single opening to admit the air, firey as it was, excepting the open door at the extreme south-east corner of the floor, leading up a short flight of steps to the sidewalk.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-08

IX-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

"When we're late and get locked out we go to the dago shop.  Were you ever in a dago's." "No." "Well, you can always tell them by the 'Ladies Entrance.' Some of them are real nice, with beautiful carpets and lace curtains and mirrors on the wall.  There's a place over on Madisan street where you can get crackers and pop for a nickle.  Some of the girls go down-town and shop, but when it rains the police lets us wait in the tunnel." "How long," I asked."Till 9 o'clock. You have to be here at 7:30 o'clock, and if you're late the door is locked and you can't get in till 9."  The above conversation took place in the Dearborn Feather Duster company's place at 50 Canal street, where I applied for work Saturday morning.  The building is in a substantial brick and extends back to the river. The factory is on the third floor and reached by two long flights of stairs that needed sweeping and repairing.  I suppose the surroundings were suitable for the business carried on, but they were far from comfortable and wholly uncharming.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-07

VIII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Nothing ever heretofore printed in The TIMES has provoked more comment or attracted more widespread attention than the exposures made during the last six days of the condition of the girls who work in some of the sewing shops of the city.  The entire public seems to be watching the progress of the revelations made by Miss Nelson not only with interest but the constantly increasing indignation at the slave-drivers who are responsible for the state of affairs.  Hundreds of letters are recieved at this office daily commending the work and urging that it be prosecuted until the public is so thoroughly aroused that the evil shall be specially and permanently corrected.  Several of the writers have spent sums of money varying from $1 to $25 requesting that Miss Nelson distribute it among the poor girls who are so bitterly and shamefully oppressed, or make such use of it as her good judgement and experience may suggest. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-06

V-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Two Weeks ago, Ref. Mr. Goss Preached a sermon relative to the morals and progress of the working woman. Among other things he referred to a "good Jew" who having the comfort of the hundred odd girls in his cloak factory at heart, "provided every day for 1 cent a substantial lunch."  I sent the reverend gnetlemen a note, inclosing a stamp for the address of the "Good Jew" and in reply came the name of H. Zimmerman, 255 Monroe street.  On went poverty's respectable rags, and off I posted for shop-work and a penny spread. The elevator carried me to the top of the building, where every week thousands of jackets, sacques, circulars, dolmans, and cloaks are turned out to supply the country trade of the northwest.  Here in a crowded room, with low ceiling and dingy walls, poorly ventilated and insufficiently lighted, sit between eighty and 150 young girls surrounded from Monday morning until Saturday noon by the ceaseless clatter of the sewing machines in an atmosphere so thick that it can be cut with a knife. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-03

IV-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

On Thursday morning when I started to renew my factory life I discovered after getting on a South-side car that I did not have a cent in my pocket.  In putting on my shop-girl disguise I had left my purse at home.  When the conductor asked for the fare I had none to give him.  It was very hot, the clouds threatened rain, and the shop was at so greata distance that I did not feel as if I could walk.  I concluded to throw myself on the generosity of the conductor and told him I had forgotten my purse.  He looked ugly and told me to get off.  Just as he placed his whistle to his lips to signal the gripman to stop a distinguished, well-dressed man paid my fare. I thanked him for his courtesy and told him if he would give me his card I would send him the money he had so kindly paid.  He smiled and said: "A mere bagatelle, miss, and not worth mentioning."  At Eighteenth street I left the car to go to a vestmaker's place at 2153 Archer avenue.  I was crossing the three points where State and Nineteenth streets intersect when who should come abreast but my benefactor.  Instead of raising his hat he jauntily cocked his left eye and came so close to me that the sleeve of my "never-rip" jersey was pressed against the waist-line of his light grey suit."   "Aha, here we are again!"  Although I distinctly heard every word of his remark, I said, "I beg your pardon" with as much of the Newport chill as I could affect.   "Come, come now," he said, with increased gayety, moving his waistband still closer to my jersey. "Oh, you are the gentleman to whom I am indebted for car-fare.  You want your money, I suppose; if you will give me your card I will write you an order."   "Do you work in this neighborhood?"  "No sir"  "Where then?"  "No place" "Where are you going?"  "For work."  "What kind?"  "Any kind.  May I have your card? I am in something of a hurry." "Mayant I have yours?" He asked "Certainly, I haven't my case, but if you will lend me a pencil I will write you one."   "With pleasure, my dear."  "You are mistaken, sir, that is not my name."  "Ha ha ha! I see you are a little mischevous, but for all that you are my dear," producing three inches of Faber. "A card, please"  "Bless me, I had forgotten," and the natty sack-coat was ransacked for a suitable card. Ah, here, this will do, I hope, in lieu of something more conventional," carefully placing on my sewing-box a small card with the address down.  I reversed the pasteboard and read on the back: Dr. Charles Gilman Smith Office Hours ----------- Residence ------------   "Dr. Smith! I know him quite well."  "Oh you do, eh?" In a tone that left no doubt that his stock in me had dropped.  I wrote:  Reporter. The Times.    And handed it to my companion, who read it with eyes that seemed to have been wired open.   

Chicago Times  1888-08-02

III-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

One of the chance acquaintances I made at the never-rip jersey factory worked three days for Julius Stein & Co., 122 Market street, received 63 cents for her labors about ten days after leaving. One-third of 63 cents is 21 2/5 cents.  That is the way Stein & CO solve the problem; but the question is one that capital, Christianity, and civilization are invited to analyze.    "Don't never go to Stein's" the little girl said, "It's an awful place."   On Saturday I tumbled out of bed at 6 AM and donned my factory clothes.  On the way down-town the street-car met with an eight-minute obstruction in the shape of a load of bricks, and when I reached the manufacturing establishment of Julius Stein & Co. it was 8:32 o'clock.  The elevator took me up one story and I was told to "get out."  I told the boy at the rope that I wished to go up to the work room.     "You're too late," he said. "Have to take the freight elevator down at the back of the store."   Down I walked as directed past long tables that towered with long cloaks, dolmans, ulsters, jackets, and short wraps; past two or three busy, unobserving clerks, past a pair of forbidding looking men who glared at me from under their black hats and blacker brows; past an earthen-grey stringy crash towel that waved at hast mast above a dirty wash-basin; past a tier of closets that emitted a stifling odor, and on down to the packing room.  I waited for a big, lusty packer to finish pummelling the mischevous little Swede who ran the elevator and was carried up to the top floor with a box of cloth.  When the car landed I found myself at the extreme end of a room 50 X 180 feet, in an inclosure of wire-fence, packing-boxes, and cutting-boards, beyong and between which I could see perhaps two-hundred persons, mostly women, bent over machines, and working only as slaves ever work.  The thundering [two unreadable words] of the machinery deadened every other [two undreadable words] even that made by the cutters as they ran their heavy shears through the [undreadable] and muslin trimmings.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-01

II-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

I did not realize the ignominious position of respectable poverty till I went to Ellinger's cloak factory, 262 Madison street, where labor is bondage, the laborer a slave, and flesh and blood cheaper than needles and thread.  Corporations are said to be without heart, but this concern is a commercial inquisition.  it puts its help on the plane of slavery and nothing but civil law prevents the use of the lash.  The factory is on the third floor of the large brick building at the east end of Madison street bridge on the south side of the street.  Elevator? Not much. An elevator is a luxury and luxuries have no place at Ellinger's You will be short of breath when you reach the top of the fourth flight, but in recovering, you have time to take in the surroundings - a great barn of a place with the single charm of good light.  There is plenty of vacant room but the women are huddled together, elbows touching along the line of the machines.  Beneath the west windows flows the river; at the south end of the room, not ten feet from the crowded table, is a tier of closets, and on hot days the combined odor of the two is shocking.  Nobody in his employ dare complain about smells, cold, head, work, wages, or rules.  But whoever heard of martyrs complaining? 

Chicago Times  1888-07-31

I-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily TImes

Tuesday, July 10, according to instructions from THE TIMES, I made up for the role of shop-girl and with a list of factories in one hand and gentle peace in the other sailed down State street under a brown braize veil as impenetrable as an iron mask, I applied at two feather factories and three corset shopws, but aside from the exercise up and down several flights of stairs got nothing.  The feather people did not need any help and the corset folks had not yet started on the winter trade.  I was treated with civility, however, and given permission to "drop in in a week or so."  The fifth place on my list was the "Western Lace Manufacturing Co.," 218 State street.  Ascending one flight of stairs I stopped to take off my veil and adjust my eyes to the low light.  That done I looked about and finding a door marked "Office of the Western Lace Manufacturing Co." with "Come In" On the glass I complied.  A young girl followed and leaving her to close the door, I fell into a chair, the only one about, and proceeded to perspire and scrutinize the place.  The office was not uninviting.  The floor had cheap carpet, the ceiling was high and the room well ventilated and admirably lighted.  On a long table, that served as a sort of fortification for the private office of the company, were the samples - "antique crocheted goods" - as they are listed, in various shades of white.  All were of different pattern and unvarying ugliness.  There were round tidies and oblong tidies, square mats for a bureau and smaller ones of oval and circular design, intended for a lamp or cusion.  Behind the table, secheting between a writing stand and a desk, was a young man of 30 or so, of the blonde type, with a stationary scowl between his eyebrows and an otherwise pleasing manner.  That is, I thought the manner pleasing until I began to get acquainted with it and then my opinion changed.  After a lapse of five minutes or so, the fair-haired gentleman turned to the young girl with a deeping of the scowl and a must unalluring "Well?" 

Chicago Times  1888-07-30

Reaction: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "More Poll Cheating Detailed" - William Currie and Pamela Zekman - Chicago Tribune

"More Democrats who acted as Republican election judges in the March primary testified before an Illinois legislative subcommittee that Democratic precinct bosses read the final vote tallies from election machines unchecked by the official judges. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-22

VIII-Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Illinois' Absurd Election Code" - Pamela Zekman - Chicago Tribune

"The Illinois election code is a patchwork quilt of absurdities and contradictions that make honest elections practically impossible. State legislators stitched the code together over the last 30 years, inserting, deleting, and overlooking needed provisions with wild abandon. The law has become sphinxlike, challenging those authorized to administer it and to enforce it to unravel its riddles. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-18

Editorial: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "The Vote Fraud Tragedy" - Unsigned - Chicago Tribune

"As a direct result of a months' long investigation of vote fraud by The Tribune, 40 persons have been indictment by a federal grand jury. U.S. Atty. James R. Thompson promises that 'our investigation will continue and evidence will be presented...until we are convinced that the last piece of election fraud which can be uncovered will be prosecuted' . . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-18

VII-Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Vote-Stealing Old Story in Chicago's Elections" - William Currie - Chicago Tribune

"Vote fraud is an old story in Chicago. Only the names change when exposing the guilty. Currently, the Democrats are suspected vote stealers. A half century ago, Republican precinct workers sponsored by Mayor William H. Thompson were being hauled into courts to face charges resulting from their overzealous campaign strategies. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-18

VI-Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Cracking Dem Sanctum" - William Currie - Chicago Tribune

"It was a job nobody wanted. It was a vacancy for a $20-a-day Republican clerk in the Chicago Board of Election Commissioners office in City Hall. The likelihood of a Republican ever rising above a clerk's job in an office so dominated by Democrats is very dim; so it was not a a job many would seek. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-18

Reaction: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "20 More Vote Fraud Indictments Expected" - George Bliss - Chicago Tribune

"The federal grand jury that indicted 40 persons for vote fraud last week will soon return at least 20 more indictments, it was learned by The Tribune yesterday. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-18

Follow-up: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "List of 40 Indicted in Vote Fraud" - Pamela Zekman and William Currie - Chicago Tribune

"The 40 persons indicted for vote fraud by the federal grand jury and the violations they allegedly committed during the March primary are: . . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-17

Reaction: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Kusper Reign Attacked" - George Bliss and William Currie - Chicago Tribune

"A parade of witnesses before a special Illinois House subcommittee investigating massive vote fraud told of vote buying, forgeries, phony election judges, terror tactics, and the beating of a poll watcher in Chicago precinct polling places last March. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-16

Reaction: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Mass Vote Fraud Arrests" - William Mullen and Pamela Zekman - Chicago Tribune

"A federal grand jury investigating vote fraud during the March primary reportedly returned 12 indictments naming 40 persons yesterday before Chief Judge Edwin A. Robson of Federal District Court. He ordered them suppressed until noon today. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-16

"Move to Divert Vote Probe Fails" - John Elmer - The Chicago Tribune

"A lone Republican joined Democrats today to try to prevent a special legislative subcomittee from launching a probe tomorrow into widespread Chicago vote fraud, but the move was blocked by Rep. Philip Collins (R., Chicago), House Elections Committee chairman. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-15

Reaction: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Percy Urges FBI Probe of Vote Fraud in Chicago" - Unsigned - Chicago Tribune

"Sen. Percy (R., Ill.) today urged Atty. Gen. Richard Kleindienst to order the Federal Bureau of Investigation to examine evidence of vote fraud in Chicago and, possibly, to supervise the general election in November. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-15

V-Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Workers Fight to Save Jobs" - William Mullen and William Currie - Chicago Tribune

"It is not just loyalty to the Democratic Party which has spawned partisan election boards in many of Chicago's wards. More often than not, it is a matter of survival for the local Democratic precinct captains and patronage employees. The Tribune Task Force uncovered hundreds of election judges who violated election rules. Many did so out of ignorance, others, in order to survive the competitive patronage system. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-14

Reaction: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "3 Are Indicted in Vote Fraud" - George Bliss - Chicago Tribune

"A 46th Ward Democratic precinct captain, his wife and the wife of his assistant precinct captain were indicted by the county grand jury yesterday for voting from a precinct where they did not live during the March primary. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-14

"20,000 Seek U.S. Marshals in Polls" - George Bliss and William Currie - The Chicago Tribune

"The signatures of 20,000 Chicago voters demanding federal marshals for the city's polling places will be presented at the White House Friday, leaders of a West Side coalition group announced yesterday at a press conference. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-13

Follow-up: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Kusper Probers 'Blind' to Fraud" - Unsigned - Chicago Tribune

"The Chicago Board of Election Commissioners pays $84,000 a year for eight full-time investigators who apparently do nothing much more than administrative work. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-13

Follow-up: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Loose Controls Permit Vote Judges to Switch Parties" - William Mullen - Chicago Tribune

"Control of Chicago election judges has been so loose in past elections that the judges take turns switching parties for each election, an investigation by The Tribune Task Force has disclosed. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-13

Follow-up: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Kusper Bars Press from Voter Files" - Pamela Zekman - Chicago Tribune

"Stanley T. Kusper Jr., chairman of the Chicago Election Board, who previous declared that his office records always are open to press and public scrutiny, shut the door yesterday on reporters' requests to examine office documents. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-13

Follow-up: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Poll Judge Violations Condoned in Election Office" - William Mullen - Chicago Tribune

"Flagrant violations of a key regulation governing the appointment of election judges have allowed hundreds of Democratic-sponsored election judges to absorb the jobs of Republican judges at polling places thruout [sic] the city, a Tribune Task Force investigation has disclosed. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-12

Reaction: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Suit Seeks U.S. Court Control of Election Board" - William Currie - Chicago Tribune

"Directors of Operation LEAP, an independent election watchdog group, yesterday sued in United States District Court seeking federal court control of the Chicago Board of Election Commissioners. . ." 

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-12

Sidebar: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Forgery Rampant in 7th Precinct, 24th Ward" - William Mullen and Pamela Zekman - Chicago Tribune

"The numerous forgeries found in the 7th Precinct of the 24th Ward were so crudely done that in many cases names were misspelled on the ballot applications. Donald Doud, a handwriting expert, identified 17 ballot applications in this precinct as being executed by the same writer."

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-11

Reaction: Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "U.S. to Widen Vote Probe" - Ronald Yates and William Mullen - Chicago Tribune

"United States Atty. James R. Thompson said yesterday his office will widen its investigation of voting irregularities to include all wards and precincts were evidence compiled by The Chicago Tribune indicates fraud. Thompson vowed to end the widespread vote fraud as revealed in The Tribune's investigation of the Chicago Board of Election Commissioners."

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-11

II-Task Force Vote Fraud Investigation: "Election Board Infiltrated by Tribune's reporter" - William Mullen - Chicago Tribune

"Kusper does not want an outsider to see how his Democratic staff is handling this machinery. He doesn't want anybody to see how many thousands of nonexistent voters are registered in his files - nonexistent voters who comes from nowhere on election days to ring up Democratic votes and victories."

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-10

I-"Reveal Huge Vote Fraud" - George Bliss - Chicago Tribune

"Evidence of more than 1,000 cases of election fraud in the March 21 primary election has been discovered by a Tribune Task Force reporter who worked undercover for three months in the Chicago Board of Election Commissioner's City Hall offices."

The Chicago Tribune  1972-09-10

Reaction: Von Solbrig Task Force: "Von Solbrig Hospital Placed on Probation" - Pamela Zekman and William Gaines - Chicago Tribune

"Dr. Eric Oldberg, president of the Chicago Board of Health, Tuesday placed von Solbrig Memorial Hospital on one-month probation, during which the board will examine hospital records, interview employees, and conduct frequent inspections of the hospital's facilities. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1975-09-10

VII-Von Solbrig Task Force: "Hospital Proves a Costly Haven for Alcoholics" - Task Force Report - Chicago Tribune

"For the alcoholic deperate for a cure, the hospital is a sham, the treatment a cruel joke. For the welfare loafer eager for a free ride, it is a $78-a-day hotel where a person can float for days on powerful tranquilizers. And for the taxpayer, Northeast Community Hospital is an expensive charade that squanders valuable Medicaid dollars. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1975-09-10

Reaction: -Von Solbrig Task Force: "Probe started at von Solbrig" - William Gaines and Jay Branegan - Chicago Tribune

"Investigation into von Solbrig Memorial Hospital and two of the doctors who practice there were ordered Monday by city and state agencies in the wake of Tribune disclosures of alleged unsafe and unethical medical practices at the hospital. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1975-09-09

IV-Von Solbrig Task Force: "Surgery done on assembly line" - von Solbrig Physician - Chicago Tribune

"The odds are astronomical, medical experts say, that several children in the same family would need their tonsils removed at once. But for $120 an operation, Dr. Edward J Mirmelli defies the odds, The Tribune Task Force found. Reporters discovered he regularly operates on three, four, and give children from the same welfare families in von Solbrig, 6500 Pulaski Rd., helping boost his welfare income to $60,000 last year, and $124,000 in 1973, according to federal government figures. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1975-09-08

V-Von Solbrig Task Force: "Hospital hunts patients" - Task Force Report - Chicago Tribune

"From all over the city, private ambulance companies take public aid recipients, easily able to use other transportation on expensive rides to Northeast, a violation of public aid regulations. In some cases, ambulances carrying "emergency" cases bypass other hospitals to go to Northeast, another public aid violation. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1975-09-09

III-Von Solbrig Task Force: "4 doctors on list dead" - Pamela Zekman - Chicago Tribune

"Altho fifty doctors are listed on the staff directory at the von Solbrig Memorial Hospital, only 18 of 47 located by The Tribune said they practice here. At least four doctors on the list are dead. One has been dead for four years. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1975-09-07

II-Von Solbrig Task Force: "'Janitor' Helps With Patients" - William Gaines - Chicago Tribune

". . .I was a Task Force reporter, hired as a janitor at the von Solbrig Memorial Hospital, 6500 S. Polaski Rd. I had been employed to scrub and mop and throw out garbage, not to assist nurses and doctors in the sterile surgical area. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1975-09-07

I-Von Solbrig Task Force: "Filth and neglect bared at von Solbrig Hospital" - Unsigned - Chicago Tribune

"It is a critical period for a 6-year-old girl lying in an anesthetized sleep on the operating table in von Solbrig Memorial Hospital. Only minutes ago she had undergone two operations, a tonsillectomy and surgical repair of a hernia. But the only other person in the operating room is a $2-an-hour janitor, in his unsanitary working clothes, who has just put down his mop in the corridor outside and rushed in to watch over the young patient at the request of a nurse. . ."

The Chicago Tribune  1975-09-07

"Hospital Abortion Issue 'Hot'" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun Times

At many of Chicago's hospitals, the moral controversy over abortion has not subsided. And the reluctance of some hospitals to help women with unwanted pregnancies and the refusal of others to even perform abortions has caused many women to turn to walk-in abortion mills.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-12-02

"Report of Record Changing at Abortion Clinic Probed" - Pamela Zekman and Karen Koshner - Chicago Sun-Times

State authorities are investigating reports that employees at a South Side abortion clinic have been ordered to alter patient records that document dangerous medical practices, it was learned Wednesday. According to sources, employees claim they were ordered to falsify records of abortion patients dating back at least six months for whom the clinic allegedly had failed to record accurate laboratory results and appropriate medications.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-30

"For 'babies who've died' - his mission" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

To his foes, he's a bearded, steely eyed zealot. To his followers, he is the champion of innocents, a demigod of mercy. Joseph M. Scheidler. Age 51. Father of six. Notre Dame University graduate. One-time journalist. Full-time pro-lifer.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-28

XV-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick -Chicago Sun-Times

They marched around the clinic, swinging their rosaries, screeching Hail Marys and howling the Lord's Prayer. Among them was Sun-Times reporter Pamela Warrick - the only marcher without rosary beads. Armed with a pseudonym and a prayerbook, she joined Chicago's pro-life movement to get an inside look at the hardcore opposition to legalized abortion. After several weeks as a volunteer at the Illinois Right-To-Life headquarters and a weekend showing gory movies on the group's traveling Life-Mobile, Warrick was referred to the office of Joseph M. Scheidler - considered one of the most radical and powerful U.S. anti-abortion leaders.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-28

"People Who Care, People Who Help" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

The two women, Ann Wright and Miriam Desmond, decided to share the information they'd gathered and continue monitoring the city's abortion clinics. They founded the Health Evaluation and Referral Service (HERS) and began one of the city's first non-profit abortion referral agencies.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-26

XIII-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

During a five-month investigation by the Sun-Times and Better Government Assn., reporters and researchers worked undercover in six of the city's 13 clinics. In four of those clinics - the Michigan Av. abortion mills - we have documented how women's lives are endangered by people who care more for profits than patients. But working undercover in two other clinics, and working in co-operation with a third, we found that abortion doesn't have to be an assembly-line operation. We found that in clinics like these, women may find safe and compassionate medical care.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-26

XI-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

During a five-month investigation of the Chicago abortion business, The Sun-Times and Better Government Assn. discovered that in some Michigan Av. abortion mills, women who are hired to counsel don't - they're paid to sell.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-24

"Closed Clinic OKs Appointments" - Karen Koshner and Pamela Zekman - Chicago Sun-Times

The Water Tower Reproductive Center, 810 N. Michigan, was accepting appointments for abortions Wednesday, despite a court order closing the unlicensed abortion facility.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-23

X-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

Nine out of 10 times, a simple urine test accurately diagnoses pregnancy. And, unless there is other proof of pregnancy, medical experts say, women with negative tests are not candidates for abortions. But working undercover at the Water Tower Reproductive Center, 840 N, Michigan, BGA investigator Mindy Trossman counted 81 abortion procedures performed on women with negative pregnancy tests. That was 12 per cent of all women who received abortions during the two months Trossman worked there.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-22

VIII-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

Chicago's abortion profiteers are padding their profits with Medicaid funds illegally obtained through kickbacks and fraudulent billing schemes. During a five-month investigation of some abortion clinics and referral agencies, the Sun-Times and Better Government Assn. have documented massive abuse of the Medicaid program and flagrant violations of federal law.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-20

VII-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

At least 12 women have died following legal abortions in Illinois walk-in abortion clinics. Although state health officials knew of not a single clinic death just a week ago, the Sun-Times and Better Government Assn. have learned of a dozen women who suffered fatal infections or bled to death after undergoing abortion procedures in state-regulated clinics.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-19

VI-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

They are identical twins with identical cons. They bill themselves as "counselors." But their business is sales, and they use every trick in the book to peddle abortions to confused and frightened women. Victoria Sanders and Valerie McCullough operate competing abortion referral services out of fancy suites and between them advertise half a dozen "abortion hot lines" in four states.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-17

V-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

We were hired off the street as aides, medical assistants and counselors. Without checking our references or credentials, four of Chicago's abortion clinics gave us jobs we were unqualified to hold and tasks we were untrained to perform. The clinics asked us to do everything but perform abortions. They wanted us to remove IVs, administer injections, give psychological counseling and assist in surgery.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-16

"State Inspects Abortion Clinics" - Karen Koshner - Chicago Sun-Times

State inspectors paid surprise visits Tuesday to five clinics named in the Sun-Times' series on abortion abuses, but they were denied entrance to one clinic and refused access to patient records at another.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-15

IV-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

Dr. Ming Kow Hah, who has already lost his medical license in one state and faces revocation in Illinois, may give the fastest abortions in Chicago. According to a five-month investigation by the Sun-Times and the Better Government Assn., Hah may also give the most painful abortions in the city.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-15

Reaction: "Thompson Orders Clinic Check Step-Up" - Pamela Zekman and Karen Koshner - Chicago Sun-Times

Gov. Thompson ordered state inspections of abortion clinics stepped up in his first meeting with his task force Monday. Thompson also asked state Atty. Gen. William J. Scott for his co-operation in the investigation. Scott assigned two assistant attorney generals to expedite pending lawsuits against at least two physicians mentioned in the Sun-Times Abortion Profiteers series.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-14

III-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

On Michigan Av., women entrust their bodies to doctors who may be mere mechanics on the abortion assembly line. They may be moonlighting residents, general practitioners with little or no training in women's medicine, or even unlicensed physicians. While slick clinic brochures promise only board-certified obstetrician-gynecologists, few have earned that accreditation.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-14

Reaction: "State to Act on Abortion Clinics" - Pamela Zekman and Karen Koshner - Chicago Sun-Times

Gov. Thompson announced Sunday that he will form a special task force of four state agencies to crack down on abuses in abortion clinics exposed in the Sun-Times and Better Government Assn. investigation of dangerous medical care in four facilities.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-13

"Abortion Peril Greater Before Legalization" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun Times

Although the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision had not stopped women from dying from abortions, legalization has been credited with reducing the number of abortion related deaths by 40 per cent.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-12

I-"The Abortion Profiteers" - Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick - Chicago Sun-Times

Five months ago, the Sun-Times and the Better Government Assn. began the first in-depth investigation of Chicago's thriving abortion business since the U.S. Supreme Court legalized abortion on Jan. 22, 1973. We found: - Dozens of abortion procedures performed on women who were not pregnant and others illegally performed on women more than 12 weeks pregnant.

Chicago Sun Times  1978-11-12

"The Inferno of Packingtown Revealed" - Review of "The Jungle" - The Arena

The Jungle is worthy of a place by the side of Frank Norris' greatest work, The Odojna. These two works have more of historic truth than many histories and they are marked by that high order of genius that compels the reader to see and feel all that man can see and feel under tragic conditions similar to those described. They are, we think, the greatest realistic romances that America has given to the world. There are many realistic writers, but for the most part they succeed only in reproducing the details of common, every-day life without revealing the soul of the picture they would portray. They are superficial observers and write superficially. They are imitators and theft works are dull and unprofitable. But let the man of transcendentimagination describe a scene and we see and feel what he sees and feels. We pass behind the mask or the superficial aspects and see the interior workings of life. The soul of the picture is revealed. He sees all that is to be seen; he feels what the actors in the scene feel; he shares the boundless hopes, the lofty aspirations, the nameless fear and the measureless despair of those that move to and fro in the play. When he depicts a section of life he becomes in the highest sense the historian of what he describes. It is this element of imagination that differentiates the genius from the hack writer; the poet from the versifier. It is this element of imagination also that invests a great painting with life, atmosphere, soul, that the camera can never catch, hold or reflect.

The Arena  1906-06-01

"Is 'The Jungle' True?" - Upton Sinclair - The Independent

"The question is," says The Independent reviewer, "how seriously shall we take this story of life in the packing house district of Chicago?" That seems to be the question with a great many people. For the past year, ever since the story began appearing serially, I have been receiving half a dozen letters a day asking it; so that if a public answer serves no other purpose, it will at least help to lighten the burden of my mail.

The Independent  1906-05-17