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I-"The Woman's Invasion" - William Hard; Rheta Childe Dorr -Everybody's Magazine

"Editor's Note - We began two years ago to gather the facts for this series of articles on the woman at work. The original investigations were made by Mrs. Rheta Childe Dorr, who obtained employment in certain typical manufactories and department stores, and lived among the working women in our great mill centers. Dr. Wey, an able sociologist, who had been connected with the United States Census Bureau, was engaged for six months supplementing the facts collected by Mrs. Dorr. Finally, ten months ago, all this material was turned over to William Hard, who again went over the ground, interviewing labor leaders, manufacturers, and working folk -- gaining a first-hand knowledge of this great subject. The importance of the conditions revealed cannot be overestimated; and in presenting Mr. Hard's articles, we desire our readers to realize how thorough has been the research on which they are founded."

Everybody's Magazine  1908-10-01

IV-"The Woman That Toils" - Marie van Vorst - Everybody's Magazine

"In the early morning the giant mill grows active. Hear it roar, shattering the stillness for half a mile! It is full now of flesh and blood, of human life and brain and fibre; it is content! Triumphantly during the long day it devours its tithe of body and soul . ... "

Everybody's Magazine  1902-12-01

III-"The Woman That Toils" - Bessie van Vorst - Everybody's Magazine

"... it is evident that, in order to render practical aid to this class, we must live among them, discover and adopt their point of view, put ourselves in their surroundings, assume their burdens, unite with them in their daily efforts. In this way alone, and not by forcing upon them a preconceived ideal, can we do them real good, can we help them to find a moral, spiritual, aesthetic standard suited to their condition of life. Such an undertaking is impossible for most people. Sure of its utility, inspired by its practical importance, I determined to make the sacrifice it entailed, and to learn by experience and observation what these could teach. ... "

Everybody's Magazine  1902-11-01

I-"The Woman That Toils" - Bessie van Vorst - Everybody's Magazine

"... This land which we are accustomed to call democratic, is in reality composed of a multitude of kingdoms whose despots are the employers, the multi-millionaire patrons, and whose serfs are the laboring men and women. The rulers are invested with an authority and a power not unlike those possessed by the early barons, the feudal lords, the Lorenzo de Medicis, the Cheops; but with this difference, that whereas Pharaoh by his unique will controlled a thousand slaves, Carnegie uses, for his own country what it is, industrially and economically. ..."

Everybody's Magazine  1902-09-01

II-"The Woman That Toils" - Marie van Vorst's- Everybody's Magazine

" ... I laid aside all that pertained to the class in which I was educated and became for a time an American working woman. To live as she lived, work as she worked, see as she saw, and to be party to her ambitions, her pleasures, her privations as far as was, under the circumstances, possible. As I worked by her side, hour after hour, day after day, I hoped to become a mirror in which she should be reflected, to be afterward her mouth-piece to those who know so vastly little of the annals of continuous, unremitting, everlasting toil."

Everybody's Magazine  1902-10-01

VI-"Working With the Working Woman" Cornelia Stratton Parker - Harper's Magazine

Harper's  1921-12-01

V- "Working with the Working Woman" - Cornelia Stratton Parker - Harper's Magazine

Harper's  1921-11-01

IV-"Working With the Working Woman" - Cornelia Stratton Parker - Harper's Magazine

Harper's  1921-10-01

III-"Working with the Working Woman" - Cornelia Stratton Parker - Harper's Magazine

Harper's  1921-08-01

II-"Working with the Working Woman" - Cornelia Stratton Parker - Harper's Magazine

Harper's  1921-07-01

"A City's Disgrace" - Annie Laurie - San Francisco Examiner

The precede reads: "After being hauled into a prison van and jolted over the cobbles, she is forced to drink hot mustard water on general principles - the acting police surgeon laughs when he hears about it, and suggests a thrashing to make her take the dose - he bruises her shoulder because she resists his hurting her head, and wants to strip her down." ... "The woman who fainted on the street and was roughly dragged into the vehicle and jolted away over the rough cobbles, was the Examiner's Annie Laurie. She had been sent to write up how a woman unfortunate enough to be taken sick or injured on the public streets of San Francisco in the year of civilization 1890, is treated by those who are paid to care for the unfortunate and suffering. "Had Annie Laurie been run over by a street-car and been cut and mangled the treatment she received would have been just the same. It took twenty minutes for her to reach the hospital, more than time enough for a person to bleed to death from a wound that would not be at all serious if attended to at once..."

San Francisco Examiner  1890-01-19

I-"A Bunny's Tale" - Gloria Steinem - Show Magazine

"What really goes on in their 'glamourous and exciting world'? To find out, Show chose a wirter who combines the hidden qualities of a Phi Beta Kappa, mane cum laude graduate of Smith College with the more obvious ones of an ex-dancer and beauty queen. A few weeks ago, she started her investigations armed with a large diary and this ad: GIRLS: DO PLAYBOY CLUB BUNNIES REALLY HAVE GLAMOROUS JBOS, MEET CELEBRITIES, AND MAKE TOP MONEY?..."

Show Magazine  1963-05-01

"9 to Nowhere -- These Six Growth Jobs Are Dull, Dead-End, Sometimes Dangerous" - Tony Horwitz - Wall Street Journal

Morton, MIss. -- They call it "the chain," a swift steel shackle that shuttles dead chickens down a disassembly line of hangers, skinners, gut-pullers and gizzard cutters. The chain has been rattling at 90 birds a minute for nine hours when the woman working feverishly beside me crumples onto a pile of drumsticks. "No more," she whimpers. A foreman with a stopwatch around his neck rushes up. "Come on now," he bellows. "Pump it up.!" Down the chain, a worker named Jose yells and waves wildly, like a drowning man. Bathroom trips are discouraged and require approval. But the foreman can't hear because of the din, and Jose is left grimacing and crossing his legs. Finally, half an hour later, a weary cheer ripples along the line. "The last bird's coming!" someone shouts. Jose sprints toward the bathroom -- and right into the path of a cleanup crew hosing offal into floor drains. Jose slips and then flops onto a sodden bank of fat and skin. "Gotta go," he says, struggling up from the mire. "Gotta go."

Wall Street Journal  1994-12-01

V-"Some Ways to Kill The Slave Market" - Marvel Cooke - New York Compass

"So the Slave Market is back. "And it is back to stay unless something is done to kill it off quickly. "A lot of people, aroused by its rebirth in The Bronx, Brighton Beach, Brownsville and elsewhere, are already fighting to beat back its advance. They want no return of conditions that existed during hte last depression when wages were driven down to 25 cents an hour."

New York Compass  1950-01-12

IV-"'Mrs. LeGree' Hires Only on the Street, Always 'Nice Girls' - Marvel Cooke - New York Compass

"As I stood there waiting to be bought, I lived through a century of indignity. . . ." " 'I've always picked nice girls,' she said. 'I knew you were nice the minute I laid eyes on you.' " "That pat on the back was worse in a way than a kick in the teeth."

New York Compass  1950-01-11

III-"'Paper Bag Brigade' Learns How to Deal with Gypping Employers" - Marvel Cooke - New York Compass

"You shouldn't-a-agreed to work by the hour. That's the best way to get gypped. Some of them only want you for an hour or so to clean the worst dirt out of their houses. Then they tell you you're through. It's too late by that time to get another job. . . . You just don't work by the hour," she repeated laconically. "Work by the day. Ask six bucks and carfare for a three-room apartment."

New York Compass  1950-01-10

II-"Where Men Prowl and Women Prey on Needy Job-Seekers"- Marvel Cooke - New York Compass

New York Compass  1950-01-09

"A Morning with Pops" - Ted Conover - Amherst Alumni Magazine

The sun has not yet risen over the mountains east of Portola, California, but in the early morning dimness I can see that Pops is already stirring.  I watch from the shrubs across our "jungle," as the mound of blankets and plastic sheeting which contains Pops shifts and gets thrown back.  Stiffly, Pops rises to his feet. He glances over at me, still wrapped in my own blankets, and I not.  That means "good morning."  It's been a long night's sleep - like most tramps, we "rolled out" just after sundown - but November mornings in the Sierras are cold, and I wait until Pops has fire going before climbing from my bed on the ground.  Dressing is not necessary - we sleep in our clothes to help keep up warm - so the first business of the day is to heat the coffee water. Pops has the "gunboat" (cooking can) ready, but pouring the water from the plastic-jub water bottle is hard this morning because chunks of ice keep blocking the mouth.  I hold the jug while Pops pushes the ice back with a twig, and the water pours.  

Amherst  1981-01-01

XVI-"What it will take to 'outlaw slavery'" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald Examiner

Get a pencil and write it down:  Without national legislations, there is little hope of cleaning up the California garment industry. Remember it and repeat it often.  Few will argue with this conclusion. Not Gov. Edmund G. Brown Jr. - "it can't go on, this exploitation of the working poor. These people are working and contributing to the wealth of California, and their voice is not being heard.  And since we can't seem to get at the heart of the problem in California's garment industry, a more comprehensive national approach must be taken."  Not state Labor Commissioner James QUillin - "What we need is recognition at the federal level that the (U.S.) garment industry is a special case. We must develop federal legislation that would require close regulation and hold manufacturers accountable."  Not state Sen. Joseph Montoya, D-San Gabriel Valley, the lawmaker who has sponsored the two most successful pieces of legislation affecting the industry since he took office in 1972 - "I would be willing to pursue the idea of federal legislation - it will serve everyone."  

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-02-01

XIV-"Bradley: 'I wouldn't want to speculate...'" -Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

As far as Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley is concerned, the violations in the city's garment industry are nothing to get excited about - a belief his critics charge is part of the problem.  "The mayor's office does virtually nothing to enforce the laws 0that apply to the garment industry)," said state Sen Joseph B Montoya, D-San Gabriel Valley, the legislator best known in Sacra-mento for his efforts to legally protect the garment worker.  "He showed interest only where there was a media event.  Why? There's a lot of money involved, a lot of contributions. You don't want to hamper your political campaign fund,  That's what it boils down to."   "It's kind of lonely out here," said state Labor Commissioner James Quillin who, as head of California's Concentrated Enforcement Program, tries to curb abuses in the garment industry. "The (city) Fire Department and the (city)  Building and Safety Department ought to be out here... but Bradley will talk about his reluctance to take any steps that might be construed as punitive agaist the industry. He'll say it is such an economic factor in the city."   Surprisingly, even manufactur-ers complain about the mayor, citing his reluctance to impose requirements on contractors beyond a $21 business tax and registration permit.  "I asked Mayor Bradley if there would be something these people (garment contractors) could read in five languages that would explain what their obligations are as employers," said Bernie Brown, the spokesman for California's Coalition of Apparel Industries,  the most powerful manufacturers' lobby in the state. "I never heard from him.  No one has the answer yet."  

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-29

"James O'Keefe and Politifact Discover Occupy Wall Street" - David Weigel - Slate

"The right's Nellie Bly goes undercover as a banker -- basically, dressing like himself, but with glasses -- and hobnobs at Occupy Wall Street. The resulting video is underwhelming. No one cries out for socialism. A couple of central casting hippies muse about how nice it would be for billionnaires to fund their movement. (This is true!) Also, a woman is cagey about giving O'Keefe a hit off her joint. . ."

Slate  2011-10-12

XXIII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

In the mass of letters recently received by The TIMES was the following: Chicago, Aug. 21 - To The Editor: A poor white slave wishes to thank you for your efforts in behalf of her poor sisters, the shop-girls of Chicago.  I have worked with them for four years and love them dearly.  your reporter was brave indeed when she battled with those terrible bosses.  I fled from them and left my week's work with them unpaid for.  I was a sad coward.  I , the pet sister of two brave solders who gave their lives to free the slaves of the south.  They told me to "take care of another and be good and brave" and I never saw them more.  I took care of mother till she went to her boys, and I have tried to be good, but I can not fight for my rights, and this is the case with many of us.  We will not stand up for ourselves.  Oh, you have not told half: you do know know have we have to bear.  We are indeed slaves, worse slaves than those my brothers died to free. I wish you could see my book for the last month; you would wonder how I have lived.     You have my best wishes for your goodness. May God bless you is the prayer of the white slaves.  Mary McGray -- State street.  P.S. - My hand is cramped with twenty-five years sewing. I can not write very well.      Curious to know something about the home life of the author the undersigned undertook to answer the letter in person.

Chicago Times  1888-08-27

XXII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

What the shop-girl and the factory-girl needs and must have if her welfare concerns society is training - a training that the scholastic stuffing of our public schools does not supply nor the limitation of the Sabbath schools permit.  The pupil children of 10 and 12 who at 14 and 15 swell the ranks of labor must be equipped for the battle of existence if pauper labor is to be averted.  The girl must have a sufficiency of physical culture not only to enable her to protect and preserve her health, but to promote it an to economize her strength for a future generation; she must be taught that if the injury done to her health must be atoned for by her children, and that her wifehood and motherhood is influenced and largely governed by her girlhood and young womanhood.  She must have her eyes and her fingers trained even at the expense of mentality, and some practiced science must be mastered before or in connection with the apostle's creed, the rule for at least common multiples and the population ofthe ten largest citites in the world.  If manual schools can not be opened to girls why not provide a vast kitchen garden where the bright motherly little maiden can mind real live babies, cook real dinners, knit real stockings and hoods, and hem napkins, quilts, rubber cloaks, and ragged garments that will be examined and paid for if satisfactory? 

Chicago Times  1888-08-26

XXI-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Nothing short of a Philadelphia lawyer, a Chicago health officer, a proprietor, or a "devil chaser" that hits the spot once in a thousand times could without a guide explore the labyrinth that as known as II. Schultz & Co's paper-box manufactory, 31 to 38 East Randolph street. It occupies only the three upper floors of a four story building, but the stairways are so dark and narrow that one must grope his way from somewhere to a supposititious somewhere else, which resembles nowhere when he gets there because the rooms are so overcrowded with material that one employe cannot in many instances see her nearest neighbor two yards away. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-19

XX-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Princess Knitting company: pretty name, isn't it? Done in gens d'arm blue letters on a navy-blue ground it makes an exceedingly effective sign.  The very colors suggest the claims of long descent and blue blood.  But the Princess company of West Washington street has nothing to do with the blue blood or gentle women, and there is nothing pretty about it but the sweet young girls of 15 and 16 and the frail children of 5 and 10 whose lives are being wound about the great wooden bobbins and from whose cheeks the roses of health and beauty are slowly absorbed by the flying threads in shuttle, needle, and spindle.  Princess Knitting company is only another name for the women's shirt factory at 155 West Washington street.  Up one flight of stairs I pass into a tidy little office where a fine looking gentleman gives me greeting and calls the forewoman, Mrs.McWilliams.  She is young and pretty.  Her voice is sweet and she has a good face.  "Yes, I have work but it won't pay you. You can't live on the salary.  I wouldn't advise you to take it.  The table girls only get $3 a week. Their work consists in sewing on buttons and finishing the arm-holes of the shirts.  We have generally employed little girls of 12 and 13 to do it.  Better work pays by the piece, 5 cents and 10 cents a dozen for knitting a finish about the neck and arm-holes and bottom of the shirts.  But you would have to be experienced; we couldn't tae the time to teach you."  

Chicago Times  1888-08-18

XIX-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

On the southwest corner of Washington boulevard and Union street towers a spacious brick building, onthe third floor of which Henry W. King & Co manufacture much ofthe clothing that supplies the country trade.  The place is far from uninviting.  Clean halls and well-swept stairs croclaim the faithful service of a janitor, and the girl who has worked in "other shops" blesses the man at the rope every time she rides in the neat, mirror-lined elevator.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-17

XVIII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson -Chicago Daily Times

If you want to see a snowstorm in summer, or its counterpart in appearence, go to the "separating room" of the mattress and pillow manufactory of Perren & Menzie, 353 to 261 Twentieth street. If you have any curiosity to know how it feels to be featherlined on the inside go to the same room.  One minute will do the work satisfactorily. The above suggestions are for people of poetic temperment or who think they are.  But the practical masses msut enter the "picking" and "dusting" rooms to get an intelligent idea of what a factory of that kind is.   We will go through the matterss department first.  The materials for filling are hair, fine and coarse shavings knows as "exelsior," palm-leave, corn husks, woolen and cotton rags, and grass. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-16

XVII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

In all this wide, weary, work-a-day world there is not a better, brighter, nobler girl than the one who stitches, lines, binds, and vamps your slippers and shoes.  She is a heroine if there ever was one outside of a civil or religious war.  She knows nothing of self-love, nothing of fear, and nothing of her own just rights.  Her life is made up of years of toil, months of privation, and weeks of struggling and striving to keep up with the rushing throng ravenous for her bread and envious of her miserable position.  She works from dawn almost to dusk, carrying every dollar of her earnings to some wretched home in which abide parents, brothers, and sisters often, too, relatives having absolutely no claim on her, none of whom lover her and none of whom show by word, ast, or deed that her generosity, goodness, and real nobility of soul is appreciated.

Chicago Times  1888-08-15

XVI-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

One of the white slaves of Chicago stood in the prisoner's dock at the armory police court yesterday moaning piteously.  She was young and her face was pretty.  The big policeman who stood at her side said he had arristed her for soliciting men upon the street.  She was booked as Kitty Kelly.  The frail, unfortunate girl brushed away her tears and told a story that went straight to the heart of every man in the crowded court room. She was a white slave and might have worn away her frail life sewing that her character should remain pure and unsullied, but the grinning skeleton of starvation haunter her day and night, and in desperation she sold herself to the tempter.  She was pale and thin and fierce hunger had left marks upon her young face.  "Oh judge I never did such a thing before! I never did it before! For God's sake have pity on me." and she wrung her hands in agony and sobbed convulsively.  "Nonsense," said the justice, trying to be stern. "You all say that."  "My baby! my baby! Oh what will become of her? For mercy's sake don't fine me! I have no money, not a cent.  Oh have mercy. I never was out before, surely I never was."  The big justice looked inquiringly at the big officer and the big officer said with a touch of emotion in his voice, "I never saw her before, your honor."  "Will you promise to keep off the street?" "I can't, no, I can't promise you that.  God knows I would if I could. But when I see my baby starving and there is no other way to find food for her, what else can I do?" and the wretched woman sobbed as if her heart was breaking.  The justice looked stern. Oh, sir," she sobbed, "If you only knew the misery and sorrow, the despair and degredation to which I have been humiliated, you might pity me.  I was young when I was married.  For awhile I was so happy. Then my husband sickened and died.  That was but little more than a year ago.  Soon after my baby was born.  I had no friend and no money. I was alone in this great city and no one to help me or even to give me a bit of advice. Vainly I sought for work.  I could not go into service and take my baby with me, and I could not bear the thought of parting from it.  At last I found employment in a factory.  There I made overalls and toled from morning until night, week in and week out.  But work as hard as I could, I could only earn $4 a week.  Baby took sick and I had to pay for a doctor and medicine, and it cost more than I could make."  

Chicago Times  1888-08-14

XV-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Saturday the TIMES reporter and inspector Rodgers of the health department visited more than a score of "slop-shops."  If "Little Hell" is on the North side, certianly "Little Warsaw" is on the West, and they must be labled to be readily distinguished.  As a matter of fact the latter locality is practically labeled, as the largest building in the region is the Kosclusko school, named in honor of the patriot who made Freedom shriek.  If Thaddeus' ghost were to be transported blindfolded from the heroes' hereafter back to earth and landed at the corner of Milwaukee avenue and West Division street it would feel perfectly at home.  It would find the descendents of its fleshly prototype and his companions true knights as becomes their noble heritage - "knights of the goose."  

Chicago Times  1888-08-13

XIV-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

The birthright of an American girl may be a glorious attribute on the deck of a trans-atlantic steamship or the floor of a London ball-room, but it is not worth the flop of a brass farthing in the cloak factories of Chicago.  It was high noon by the Jesuite college clock when I got to the rear of 230 West Twelfth street, where David Kafasick has his shop.  Nobody in but an old man.  His face is seamed with wrinkles: he has a big nose the color and texture of a mushroom: his head and half his face is covered with hair of chinchilla shades: his back is humped at the shoulders and his clothes are fithy and worn.  I ask for work and am told that no hands are needed.  He has a pocket that hangs across his waist and into which he puts rags, pieces of thread, hooks and eyes, pins, buttons, and the empty spools that he on the floor about the vacant machine-chairs.  I watch the silent old man as he drags his loos slippers across the floor, and behold I have the key to wealth! But it doesn't profit me worth a copper.  So I survey the premises.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-12

XIII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

"I can show you some clothing factories by the side of which those heretofore described by THE TIMES will appear as places.  If you will accompany me along South Canal, Clinton, and Jefferson streets, around Twelfth Street, you will see things that will give you an insight into the way our clothing dealers get rich and the shop-hands are compelled to be satisfied with wages that constitute less than 10 per cent of what the purchaser pays for the article."  The man who spoke these words had come to the TIMES office and offered his service in the disclosures of slave-driving in this city.  This voluntary guide was a Jew named Schlesinger.  Having worked in tailor-shops for a few years he was in a position to point out not only the causes of the prevailling misery in this branch of industry but by personal acquaintance could locate the shops in the vicinity which he considered the worst.  He confined himself to the cloak factories, and took a reporter through a dozen shops, introducing him as an operator from New York who was looking for work.  He said this ruse was necessary as otherwise the factory lords would not allow his companians inside their shops.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-11

XII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

"Do you want 'to visit a manufacturing establishment, generally held in high repute, where a girl's tenure of place depends upon the degrading concessions she may be induced to make to her employer?'" The question was put to a reporter for The TIMES by Inspector George Bodgers of the health department.  They had just formed a temporary copartnership under the name and style of "we" to make a thorough examination of the hells and holes where human beings hive, delve, and thrive or die under the guise of 'employes'. [sic] "Well, I'll tell you the story and I know it to be true and so does my wife. A girl of good development and modest demeanor had for some time been employed in a book bindery and had become fairly well-skilled.  One afternoon she turned in, as the result of her day's work, four books.  The foreman complained that the work was imperfect - in fact, that the books were spoiled, and told the girl she must pay for them.  She asked for particulars but could get little satisfaction.  She became indignant and was thrust aside.  Remembering that other mouths than hers were awaiting the food her scanty earnings must purchase she pleaded first for justice and then for mercy. "You quit work with the rest at 6 o'clock," said the foreman. "Come back fifeteen minutes later and perhaps I may straighten out your account so that you will owe nothing."  The girl, hesitating between hope and fear, crossed the bridge as if to go homeward and then returned to the office.  The foreman was at the door, welcomed her within, and turned the key.  he assured her that he had helped many of the girls in the employ of the firm to balance their accounts after business hours.  Be that as it may, he had made a grave miscalculation in this case, and in less seconds than it takes to tell it he was glad he hadn't lost the key to the door.  The girl came directly to my house, told her story, and never returned to the tiger's lair.  Her case is but one of many, and if she adheres to her present decision it will be the particular one of many before the firm and the foreman hear the last of it.  Now come with me and we'll take a trip through the binderies and printing establishments, and before we get through I'll show you the fiend who endeavored to ruin this young girl.  

Chicago Times  Friday, August 10, 1888

XI-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

It was 7 a.m. by all the whistles in "Little Hell" when I reached that section of the city in search of an opening in a slop-shop.  The streets were crowded with shop hands hurrying to their day's work - men and boys with pipes in their mouths carrying dinner pails or lunch baskets; little girls in groups of two and three in beggarly rags; young women and old women, some of them white-haired and stooped with age, wearing shawls about their heads and shoulders and the meanest apologies for shoes.  Many girls were bare-headed and some went through the streets in old skirts and dilapidated waists that had neither collar nor sleeves.   At the corner of Elm and Wesson streets is an immense tailor shop into which the girls fairly swarmed, some going into the main and some into the rear building. Both buildings have three stories, each containing a shop under a different "boss." I followed the crowd through both buildings beginning in the basement and going up and up and up the narrow, dirty covered stairs, stopping on each floor to see the "boss" and apply for work.  No success.  The vest shops were full and so were the trousers shops.  In the jacket shop there was room for experienced hands only at the munificent salary of $3 a week.  The garments were cut and the sewer had the entire making.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-09

X-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

For dismal surroundings, economy of comforts, and heartless treatment, to the Boston store belongs the palm.  I did not work in that establishment although I tried very hard to do so.  I was in the store at 8 o'clock on Friday morning as arranged with Mr. Hillman, who had partially promised to hire me.  "One of the girls in the hoisery department," he had said "is sick, and if she doesn't come back Friday morning I will try you."  I could not find the gentleman, although I hunted the main floor and the floors above and below.  My plan of fluctuation was to take the elevator up one story and walk down, and then ride up two and walk down the third flight, in that way I took in the entire store and a great part of the employees.  I began at the bottom and spent a full hour in the basement, where I saw so much and suffered so much that the upper floors had no surprised for me.  In the first place the atmosphere was almost unendurable.   Hot! It must have been 100 degrees above! Out in the open air not a breeze was stirring and the heat was sizzling.  Down where I was I could not see a single opening to admit the air, firey as it was, excepting the open door at the extreme south-east corner of the floor, leading up a short flight of steps to the sidewalk.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-08

IX-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

"When we're late and get locked out we go to the dago shop.  Were you ever in a dago's." "No." "Well, you can always tell them by the 'Ladies Entrance.' Some of them are real nice, with beautiful carpets and lace curtains and mirrors on the wall.  There's a place over on Madisan street where you can get crackers and pop for a nickle.  Some of the girls go down-town and shop, but when it rains the police lets us wait in the tunnel." "How long," I asked."Till 9 o'clock. You have to be here at 7:30 o'clock, and if you're late the door is locked and you can't get in till 9."  The above conversation took place in the Dearborn Feather Duster company's place at 50 Canal street, where I applied for work Saturday morning.  The building is in a substantial brick and extends back to the river. The factory is on the third floor and reached by two long flights of stairs that needed sweeping and repairing.  I suppose the surroundings were suitable for the business carried on, but they were far from comfortable and wholly uncharming.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-07

VIII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Nothing ever heretofore printed in The TIMES has provoked more comment or attracted more widespread attention than the exposures made during the last six days of the condition of the girls who work in some of the sewing shops of the city.  The entire public seems to be watching the progress of the revelations made by Miss Nelson not only with interest but the constantly increasing indignation at the slave-drivers who are responsible for the state of affairs.  Hundreds of letters are recieved at this office daily commending the work and urging that it be prosecuted until the public is so thoroughly aroused that the evil shall be specially and permanently corrected.  Several of the writers have spent sums of money varying from $1 to $25 requesting that Miss Nelson distribute it among the poor girls who are so bitterly and shamefully oppressed, or make such use of it as her good judgement and experience may suggest. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-06

VII-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Wednesday morning I began my career as a dry-goods clerk.  It took all my wits to get an opening.  At Field's Mandel's, Walker's, and Schlesinger's no help was needed and none would be taken without experience.  By all the managers I was treated politely. Lloyd didn't want any more help and told me so with vehemence. The big blonde who manages the Bee Hive was "very sorry he could not offer anything before the fall trade opened."  I told him I was quick at figures and knew I could sell goods if only I had a chance.  No, it was too late in the season and I had better come in again.  I asked how much he thought I would be worth. "Oh, $3.50 or $4 till you are experienced."  "Couldn't you give me $5?"  "Hardly."  "Not if I prove to you that I can make and keep custom?"  "You can't expect $5 any place in town.  You see, you are green: you don't know anything about the business."  "The goods are all marked, aren't they? Well I know enough about mathematics to master the intracacies of your check and order stub in ten minutes, and I must have work right off with salary enough to live on."   He put his foot up on a chair and with a show of genuine interest wanted to know what it cost me to live.  As I gave him the figures borrowed from a single girl in Julius Stein's employ, he took them down on a stub:      Lodgings: -------------------------------$1.70 Car fare:--------------------------------- 60 Lunches:---------------------------------- 30   That makes $2.40, and if you pay me $4 I will have $1.60 a week to live on.  Perhaps you can tell me where a girl can get food and clothes for that amount?  "No I can't.  But why don't you go to the factory and sew?"  "Make shirts for 80 cents a dozen and cloth jackets at 25 cents each? One trial is enough.  Now I am going to see what I can make clerking" and thanking him for his attention I withdrew.  In the City of Paris the manager told me I would have to begin on a small pay, $3 or so, till the season opened, and that I might come in the next morning and he would try me.    

Chicago Times  1888-08-05

VI-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Never so long as reason reigns shall I forget the day I worked in II Goldsmith's tailor-shop, and never when I pray shall I forget to add, "God help the shop girls." Thursday morning I stepped from an Ogden avenue car and walked down Market street in search of work. It was boiling hot and I carried my brown veil on the breeze, and a small pasteboard box containing a cracker and a lemon, a paper of needles, a thimble, and a pair of scissors.  On the way I met two unhappy looking girls of whom I made labor inquiry.  One had sewed carpet at $5 a week for the Chicago Carpet company but was out of employment.  The other said she earned $6 a week in WB Brothers' caravat department.  Her [unreadable] was sick and the forewoman had "let her off for the day."  The first clew I got to a place was a wooden sign with "Sewing GIrls Wanted" that hung below the north window of 153 Market street, where Messrs. Hart, Abt, & Marx manufacture clothing.  I read the sign and entered the main store - a nice, big, clean cool place.  A little girl sat at the big typewriter making such a clatter with her letters that it was useless to try to call her.  In the office were two gentlemen.  One was the very prototype of Munkaesy's Jesus Christ, and he I addressed for work.  

Chicago Times  1888-08-04

V-"City Slave Girls" - Nell Nelson - Chicago Daily Times

Two Weeks ago, Ref. Mr. Goss Preached a sermon relative to the morals and progress of the working woman. Among other things he referred to a "good Jew" who having the comfort of the hundred odd girls in his cloak factory at heart, "provided every day for 1 cent a substantial lunch."  I sent the reverend gnetlemen a note, inclosing a stamp for the address of the "Good Jew" and in reply came the name of H. Zimmerman, 255 Monroe street.  On went poverty's respectable rags, and off I posted for shop-work and a penny spread. The elevator carried me to the top of the building, where every week thousands of jackets, sacques, circulars, dolmans, and cloaks are turned out to supply the country trade of the northwest.  Here in a crowded room, with low ceiling and dingy walls, poorly ventilated and insufficiently lighted, sit between eighty and 150 young girls surrounded from Monday morning until Saturday noon by the ceaseless clatter of the sewing machines in an atmosphere so thick that it can be cut with a knife. 

Chicago Times  1888-08-03

XIII-"Who are the players? What are the problems?" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

What stands in the way of cleaning up California's rapidly growing $3.5 billion garment industry, centered in Los Angeles and officially recognized as "the dirtiest in the state"? After an intensive eight-month investigation, which included a month's undercover work posing as an illegal garment worker, the Herald Examiner discovered that the garment industry's major problems revolve around the manufacturers, not the contractors. These people, the manufacturers, control the purse strings of the industry yet are not held legally accountable for the health and labor conditions under which their garments are made. 

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-28

XII-"The retailer's side of the story" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

Talk to major retailers in Los Angeles, the impeccably dressed corporate executives who reap grand profits from selling high fashion and style, and they will completely disavow the problems of the garment industry.  But talk to labor commission officials or even spokesmen from various contractors' or manufacturers associations, and they will tell you that until big retailers agree to accept responsibility for their part in perpetuating flagrant labor and health code violations, the industry will continue to be "the dirtiest in the state."  

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-27

XI-"It’s Another Mike Wallace Trick!" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

If Linwood Melton was a good example of a manufacturer insinuated from the exploitation of the industry, Norman Blomberg, the president of Sauci Inc., an $8 million budget-blouse company, was someone who seemed to know the story. "So it's a horrifying business. What's new?" Blomberg said when I told him the conditions under which I worked on his rose-and-cream-colored short-sleeved blouse at Felix Mendoza's shop. He seemed sure of himself, a man with arough exterior.

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-26

IX-"The fading of Felix Mendoza's dream" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

Felix Mendoza is the first to admit that he should go out of business. No excuses. No bitterness. He says there is hardly a chance to make a go of it as a garment contractor in Los Angeles.  You remember Mendoza. He was the slightly built man who thought I was another poor illegal and gave me a job in his small and dank sewing factory near Central Los Angeles.  His shop was filthy, nightmarish.  And for a full week's work, I earned a pitiful $38.74

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-23

VIII-"The work is 'killing' Martha and Oscar" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

The manufacturers' response to knowing I worked on their garments seemed miled to the way Oscar and Martha Herrera greeted the news that I was a journalist, not a Brazillian garment worker.  The first time I entered the shop as a newspaper reporter, one sunny Tuesday afternoon, the Herrera's responded to me cooly but politely.  Oscar stood over the mangle, swiftly arranging the blue trousers on the roller before he lowered the steaming top.  As I approached, he looked up with a puzzled expression on his face.  Some of the other workers that had befriended me when I worked in the shop came forward, like Sergio from Guatemala.  He recognized me immediately and smiled. He knew something was up.  

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-22

VII-"'I"m not Joan of Arc. I'm a garment manufacturer.'" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

To hear wealthy dress manufacturers Richard Freedman and Lowell Meyer talk, you would think that single-handedly they overcame the recession and every other obstacle in a competitive business, to put their firm on top.  Listening to smooth-talking women's sportswear manufacturer Warren Handler talk, you would think that all it took for him to succeed was good design and lots of hard work.  And I might have believed them, all of them - had I not been demeaned and exploited as a worker in one of their contractor's unhealthful shops.  Or had I not know about the manufacturers' sanctioned edge over everyone else in the Los Angeles germent industry.  

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-21

VI-"Merlina faces the labor commissioner - and wins" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

The offices of the state labor commissioner, on the fifth floor at 107 S. Broadway, are painted hospital green and off white, a no-nonsense kind of place.  In the large, rectangular shaped entry room, clerks stand behind an old, built-in wooden counter that divides the space into offices and a waiting room.  That day, nearly everyone in the waiting room was either black or spoke Spanish. I never would have complained to the Labor Commission had I not know that what happened to me at Ernst Strauss Inc. happens to garment workers every day. Labor Department officials believe that many employers regularly refuse to pay but because the workers are largely undocumented - an estimated 90 percent of them in Los Angeles are here without papers- they get away with it.  

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-20

V-"Seven Hours in a Union Shop for $2.50" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

Make no mistake about the quality of the operation over at the union-organized Ernst Strauss Inc.  The shop, maker of very expensive, fine-quality women's suits and coats, is considered the best in Los Angeles.  Ask garment industry leaders, union officals, ask the owners themselves.  "The pay is the highest in California - maybe the country," said one owner.  "The workers are so loyal you couldn't beat them away. " said another.  "It's a union shop," explained someone from the International Ladie's Garment Worker's Union.  "A 30-year member. Everything is done right."  But "right in the undisputed best shop in town is a relative term.  On June 12, a Thursday, I went to work as a sewing machine operator in Ernst Strauss factory.  As before, I posed as a poor, illegal brazillian germent worker. I no speak English. Espanol, por favor.  

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-19

IV-"Homework: The Alien’s Secret Support System" Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

No one seemed to know how much garment industry homework is done in Los Angeles.  And I had no idea how work illegally filters down to homes from the contractors or manufacturers.  So at the end of May, I decided to find out on the streets.  I had a few preconcieved notions about homework.  In the Mendoza shop where I worked in early May, I witnessed trusted sewing machine operators carry out unfinished blouses stuffed in large, green plastic garbage bags, presumably to be finished later at home.  For nine days, from 8 AM to 5 PM, I walked the residential streets of the city, from Central Los Angeles to Sunland in the north, to Wilmington, the "Heart of the Harbor," to El Monte on the east.  I chose streets where it seemed working-class and poor people lived; man neighborhoods were largely Spanish-speaking.

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-18

III-"'This is the filthiest of all industries'" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

The Los Angeles Country Health Department found Felix Mendoza's shop a full month before I knocked on the door looking for work there.  Since October 1979, when a county ordinance mandated the Health Department to locate and license the estimated 3,000 sewing shops in Los Angeles County, health officials have been trying to clean up what Richard Dinnerline, L.A. county chief of occupational health, called "the filthiest of all industries."  According the the Health Department's Dec. 30 1980 figures, 2,746 garment factories have been found and licenced in the past year.  Health officials believe there are hundreds more, especially in outlying areas of the county where immigrant workers often live.    

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-16

II-"Five Days' Work for Felix Mendoza, $38.74" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

I was beginning my second odyssey into the $35 billion California germent industry, another weekling, nine-hour-a-day journey into the underworld of fancy clothes and high style.  I knocked on the wooden door behind the grate at 331 N. Mountain View in Los Angeles. Just when I thought no one would answer, a small, thin, dark-eyed man slowly opened the door.  He was Felix Mendoza, a Mexican-born sewing contractor who had been in business for only six months.  "I'm looking for work," I said in Spanish through the bars.  "Can you sew?" he asked.  It was his only question. 

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-15

I-"Merlina's Job in Oscar Herrera's Factory" - Merle Linda Wolin - Los Angeles Herald-Examiner

It was almost 5 P.M. on a Tuesday when I stepped out of the elevator onto the factory room floor.  I stood quietly, looking anxiously to both sides of the now empty sewing shop.  Near the entrance, a dark-haired man in a white t-shirt stood working at a long, wooden table piled high with red cloth.  His name: Oscar Herrera, owner of the shop.  Late afternoon light filtered through the rows of sooty windows that formed one entire wall of the large production room.  He motioned for me.   "Venga venga! Come here!" he said in Spanish.  "What are you looking for?"  "Busco trabajo. I am looking for work," I said nervously.  "Do you know how to sew?" he countered.  I nodded yes, not wanting to lie outright.  He told me they had work and that if I could make this jacket - he walked over to a rack of clothes and held up a white blazer - and this dress - he held up a short-sleeved red one - I could have a job.  

Los Angeles Herald-Examiner  1981-01-14

XIII-"It can happen here;" Nazi Torturer Tells How" - John Metcalfe and James Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

Throughout the summer Billy Rose swings his colorful water carnival at the Clevelant Great Lakes exposition to a might climax while a chorus sings, "It can't happen here!" Black shirts, brown shirts, reds collapse in a fantastic dance when a peace loving legion of Americans marches onto the stage.  But in a basement apartment a few miles away, I meet an Amerikadeutscher Volksbund fanatic, who is convinced "it can happen here."  He is Adolph Scheidt, alias Schmidt, 564 E. 120th st., a sheet metal worker employed by the General Aviation Corp., and secretary of the Cleveland Bund post.  A disabled German world war veteran, Scheidt apparently is in almost constant pain.  he breathes hard and occasionally twists his body and grips his side as if to ease the pain.  His icy eyes stare at me suspiciously as I meet him in front of his apartment.  I introduce myslf and he gives me the nazi salute.  

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-24

XII-"Chicago Police 'with Us,' Ex G-Man hears Nazi Boast" - James J. Metcalfe and John C. Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

Initial subscriptions for the Chicago Bunds' proposed camp near Grays Lake total $2,000, Fuehrer Fritz Heberling tells me on Aug, 18.  "With an insurance company taking a mortgage for $4,000, we need only $2,500 more," he says.  "because we already have 1,500 in the Bund fund, the total cost will be $10,000. We are going to have baby bonds.  But first we have to have a charter and make a corporation.  It will take about two months.  We don't have an option on the property, but we are not worried about that." 

X-"German Citizens Join U.S. Bund, Ex G-Man Learns" - James J. Metcalfe and John C. Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

The fact that the Amerikadeutscher Volksbund has opened its membership to German citizens "some day may cause a lot of trouble," Fritz Heberling, fuehrer of the Deutscher Volksbund tells me.  We are seated in Heberling's home at 3240 W. Warner ave. for a "school" session.  I have volunteered to help Heberling with English pronunciation and grammar and he is to help me with German. He says he never could conscientiously become an American citizen because he could not be loyal to two countries at the same time.  "you know," he explains, "one time I went to the courthouse - the federal office - to file my intention but when I went up the steps and saw those people writing out papers and swearing, I just could not do it.  I turned around and went out again.  

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-21

IX-" Ex-G-Man Hears Bund Edict on Kenosha March" - James J. Metcalfe and John C. Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

Fritz Matthes, drillmaster of the Deutscher Volksbund, tells me not to attempt to retaliate if the CIO or "the communists" start trouble when we parade at Kenosha, Wis., on German day.  "I'll issue the commands if the situation requires action," he warns.  This warning comes six days before the Kenosha celebration after a drill night at the Bundscheim.  At this meeting and at the business meeting of the Amerikadeutscher Bund two days later, a dozen members asks for copies of the pictures I took at Hindenberg camp the previous Sunday.  Members at amused at the stories of the Hindenburg camp celebration in the Milwaukee Sentinel headed "Fail to Heil Hitler."  

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-20

VIII-"Nazi in U.S. Boast German Counsul Control" - William Mueller, John C. Metcalfe, James J. Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

By the very pinnacle of American naziism - Der Fuehrer Fritz Kuhn - the TIMES was informed of a "special arrangement" between the German-American Bund and Chancellor Adolf Hitler of Germany.  Ramifications of the "arrangement" Kuhn declared, include a secret relationship between the Bund and the new German ambassador to the United States and German counsuls throughout the country.  Publicly, Kuhn has said repeatedly:  "We are strictly an American organization with no connections with Germany." But in the privacy of his executive office on the second floor of the Bund national headquarters at 178 E. 85th st., New York, he had a different story to tell one of the reporters who became a trusted storm trooper. 

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-19

VII-"Storm Trooper's Love Flight Told By Chicago Wife " - William Mueller, James J. Metcalfe and John C. Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

A bewildered little woman, aged beyond her years, sat in her shabby basement apartment at 2631 Lakewood ave., today sobbing for "justice" from her American nazi storm troop husband who deserted her for a childhood sweetheart. She is Mrs. Freida Lee, 54, and she told her story after identifying a picture of Robert Lee, Los Angeles member of the Amerikadeutsher Volksbund, as the husband who deserted her on Dec. 13, 1932.  The picture appeared in the TIMES Sept. 10 in connection with the series on American nazis.  

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-17

U.S. Nazi Toys Teach Kids War

Nazi swastikas wave ... a cannon "booms" ...sparks fly from machine guns...signal communication lights flash.  It is WAR, but a miniature war.  A war played by American boys and girls with toy soldiers which are exact copies of the new Hitler military machine.  Toy soldiers imported from Germany instill in American children the "glory" of war, TIMES reporters "covering" American nazidom learned.  Two German import stores in the Yorkville section of New York City sell hundreds of nazi toy soldiers each year.  The stores have smaller displays of American soldiers but they are not nearly as popular as those of the nazi regime.  

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-15

V-"Nazi in U.S. Blast Church" - William Mueller and John C. Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

American nazis, aping the Fuehrer of their homeland, applaud vicious attacts on Chicago's Cardinal Mundelein, the Roman Catholic Church, and all Christian religions which conflict with national socialism.  But the Chicago leader of the Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, buck-toothed Peter Gissibl, a tailer, makes cassocks for priests and is actively soliciting their business.  Early this month, Times reporter James Metcalfe, who became a Deutcher Volksbund storm trooper under the name of Oberwinder, drafted a letter for Gissibl which his business partner said was to go to 250 Catholic priests. 

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-14

III-"Fascist Union U.S. Nazi Goal" - William Mueller and John C. Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

"The Amerikadeutscher Volksbund, U.S. voice of nazism, is seeking to consolidate all fascist elements in America, wit their vari-colored shirts, into one great movement which the Hitler-inspired Bund will lead.  TIMES reporters who joined the Bund marched with Italian black shirts and Ukranian brown shirts.  Leaders revealed plans to enlist the support of other fascist-inclined groups.  At the same time Newton Jenkins, perenially hopefully political candidate of Chicago is attemption to unite "nationalist" groups in a third party and the Bund is looking for a leader of its third party movement. . ."

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-12

II-"U.S. Children 'Heil' Hitler" - William Mueller and John C. Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

I am a stranger in the crowded bar at Camp Siegfried, summer home of the German-American Bund near Yaphank, L.I.. It is Sunday, May 23, and American nazis of the New York metropolitan area are celebrating the official summer opening of their camp.  The air is heavy with conversation in German and it is difficult for me to catch snatches of it since I have forgotten much of the German I learned in Berlin as a boy.  My aim is to become acquainted with a Bund member who will invite me to a meeting where I can become a part of the organizations.  I talk about the inevetable weather toa kindly appearing man next to me and soon we take our beer out to a picnic table under the tall trees that surround the restaurant-bar building.  I tell him I am a stranger in New York and that I came to Camp Siegfried because I wanted to be with people of my own race.  

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-10

I-"Secrets of Nazi Army in USA" - William Mueller and John Metcalfe - Chicago Daily Times

"The regimented tread of marching men under the flaming nazi swastika resounds from coast to coast in the United States today. In uniforms strangely suggestive of those worn by Adolf Hitler's nazi storm troops a relatively small but rapidly growing army is preparing for the American counterpart of "Der Tag," when it plans to seize control of the United States. "We are not plotting a revolution," leaders tell their followers. "But we are going to be prepared to wrest control from the communist Jews when they start their revolution. We will save America for white-Americans. . ."

Chicago Daily Times  1937-09-09

"The Shame Game" - Douglas McCollam - Columbia Journalism Review

"It was just before 3 p.m. on a Sunday afternoon last November when a contingent of police gathered outside the home of Louis Conradt Jr., a longtime county prosecutor living in the small community of Terrell, Texas, just east of Dallas. Though the fifty-six-year-old Conradt was a colleague of some of the officers, they hadn’t come to discuss a case or for a backyard barbeque. Rather, the veteran district attorney, who had prosecuted hundreds of felonies during more than two decades in law enforcement, was himself the target of an unusual criminal probe. For weeks the police in the nearby town of Murphy had been working with the online watchdog group Perverted Justice and producers from Dateline NBC’s popular “To Catch a Predator” series in an elaborate sting operation targeting adults cruising the Internet to solicit sex from minors. Dateline had leased a house in an upscale subdivision, outfitted it with multiple hidden cameras, and hired actors to impersonate minors to help lure suspects into the trap. As with several similar operations previously conducted by Dateline, there was no shortage of men looking to score with underage boys and girls. In all, twenty-four men were caught in the Murphy sting, including a retired doctor, a traveling businessman, a school teacher, and a Navy veteran . . ."

Columbia Journalism Review  2007-01-01

"Dateline: To Kill a Predator" - Jesse Wegman - Huffington Post

"Well, Dateline: you finally got what you wanted - a live execution, with cameras rolling. Are you satisfied? A man is dead, technically by his own hand: Louis Conradt, an assistant district attorney in a small Texas town, about to be arrested for chatting online with and planning to meet a minor (he thought) for sex. He did not actually leave his house, but he did talk about it online, and in Texas that's enough to constitute a crime. So the cops descend on his bungalow with Dateline in tow, and they get the goods, if not the guy: a loud bang echoes from inside the house as their cameras approach. Moments later, Conradt is wheeled out on a stretcher, his bloody hair waving in the breeze."

Huffington Post  2007-02-23

Over the line: the questionable tactics of "To Catch a Predator" - Deborah Potter - American Journalism Review

". . .The 'To Catch a Predator' series on 'Dateline NBC' has been a smash hit for the network's news division since it launched more than two years ago, drawing a substantial audience and public praise for bringing sex offenders to justice. But the program's tactics have always been controversial, and now they've landed NBC in court. The charge is breach of contract, but the complaint paints a picture of a program willing to cross ethical lines to win ratings. Former 'Dateline' producer Marsha Bartel, who worked at NBC for more than 20 years, was let go last December just a few months after being promoted to sole producer of the 'Predator' series. Bartel says the company told her she was being dropped in a general round of layoffs. While there's no question that NBC has been downsizing, Bartel believes she was forced out because she complained to her supervisors that the 'Predator' series repeatedly violated the standards of ethical journalism. . ."

American Journalism Review  2007-08-01

"Ethics of NBC's Sting Show 'To Catch a Predator'" - Neal Conan - Talk of the Nation NPR

The online watchdog group Perverted Justice lures sexual predators by posing as minors online and inviting them to meet up in person. And Dateline NBC's wildly popular "To Catch a Predator" series has captured audiences nationwide with a mix of fear and voyeurism. Guests: Douglas McCollam, attorney and contributing writer for Columbia Journalism Review Chris Hansen, host of NBC Dateline series "To Catch a Predator" Richard Rapaport, San Francisco-based freelance writer, author of "Dying and living in 'COPS' America" a critique of "To Catch a Predator." Xavier von Erck, founder of pervertedjustice.com

Talk of the Nation  2007-01-16

XIX-"To Catch a Predator: Potential predators go south in Kentucky" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

"Bowling Green, Ky. — We're at it again, catching potential online sex predators in the act of attempting to meet young girls. Elliott: I’ve had that fantasy in the back of my head. Chris Hansen: About being with a young girl? Elliott: A young girl, yes. We're in a new state, in a new part of the country -- southwestern Kentucky. What's not new is the men's reaction to meeting who they think is a young girl. Armstrong: I haven't had a kiss yet. Elliott: Gosh, you're pretty. West: Well, I’m going to give you a hug. McPhetridge: I’d like to hold you. Decoy: And then what? McPhetridge: And kiss you. That's why I was asking you to come up here. We're set up in this six-thousand square foot home in Bowling Green, Kentucky. We've outfitted the house with thirteen hidden cameras and seven are outside, capturing a potential predator as he drives into the development, up our street and into our driveway. Then five cameras inside pick up his every move as he walks in the door."

Dateline NBC  2007-12-28

XVII-"To Catch a Predator: Expensive home rich with potential predators" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

"OCEAN COUNTY, N.J. — We're in Ocean County, New Jersey for our eleventh internet sex predator investigation. Mike: You're Chris Hansen. Hansen: I am. Here, men will show up after making a date online, apparently hoping for sex with a young teen and knowing exactly what they’ve walked into… Justo Benavides: This is the Dateline thing. ...seem to realize what they are doing is illegal… Hansen: So you know what happens next. Lubrano: Yup (hands behind back)."

Dateline NBC  2007-05-25

XVIII-"To Catch a Predator: No day at the beach" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

"OCEAN COUNTY, N.J.— We’ve been catching suspected Internet sex predators for more than three years, exposing men on the hunt for sex with young teens. More than 200 men have been arrested. After 11 investigations in eight different states, a 117 men have either pleaded guilty or been found guilty by a judge or jury. Yet there are still men out there willing to take the risk of getting caught. It seems no matter where in America we go, we find men apparently ready to molest young teens. During our latest investigation in Ocean County, New Jersey, it’s no different. Men familiar with our reports show up anyway. It's a beautiful stretch of beach and a picture-perfect summer vacation spot for parents and children. But it's also for potential predators. Michael Lubrano: You’re Chris Hansen? Chris Hansen: I am.  One who actually appears happy to meet me... Jeremy Keister: It’s nice to meet you. Chris Hansen: Thank you.  (laughter)"

Dateline NBC  2007-07-18

XVI-"To Catch a Predator: The scariest potential predator" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

FLAGLER BEACH, FLA. — Who wouldn’t want to visit Flagler Beach? This small, idyllic spit of land on Florida’s east coast attracts thousands of visitors every year. But some of the visitors you’ll meet   aren’t just coming for the sun, sand, and surf. Flagler Beach it seems, is a town ready to take on  potential sex predators. Officer Kevin Pineda explains the kind of complaints his department has been hearing. Officer Kevin Pineda: Older gentleman going to our beach—that much isn’t a crime, they’re just staring at people.  But when they start making advances towards the young generation in our city, it causes concern.  Having seen Dateline’s investigations, Pineda decided to conduct his own experiment.  He  set up his own decoy profile online in local chat rooms, posing as a 14-year-old girl named “Jenna,” screen name “flaglerbeauty14f.” Officer Pineda: Within about 5 to 10 minutes the screen was just cluttered with instant messages, you know, emails.  It was just unbelievable. Over  just two days, Pineda received messages from more than a hundred people, mostly older men and their intent was unmistakable. One guy sent an image of his penis, and his wife performing oral sex on him.

Dateline NBC  2007-03-06

XV-"To Catch a Predator: Flagler Investigation: Online and on the beach" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

FLAGER BEACH, FLA. — It’s December in Flagler Beach Florida (population: 5,000), and it’s time for the annual holiday parade. The entire police force of Flagler, a town some 20 miles north of Daytona, is working parade duty. But later that evening, most of those same officers are working one of the biggest investigations they’ve ever tackled. The police are hiding in a garage behind our latest undercover house, waiting to arrest the man who’s about to walk inside. 34-year-old Mohamad Abdalla works in real estate.  He’s married, and has an 8-year-old daughter.  Female decoy (on hidden camera): Come inside.  It’s cold out here.  Come in.  Come on in.  Hi.  How are you?  How was your drive? Mohamad Abdalla: Can I leave the door open?  Decoy:  You can leave the door open. Abdalla: How you doing? Decoy: Sit down. Good. Long before he got to the house, Abdalla used the screen names ‘blondy91972’  and ‘midos1972’  to chat with someone who told him she’s a 13-year-old girl. But he was really talking to a decoy for the online watchdog group Perverted-Justice, a group we hired because of its experience pretending to be teens online who are curious about sex.

Dateline NBC  2007-02-27

XIV- "To Catch A Predator: Murphy, Texas" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

Dateline NBC  2007-02-13

XIII-"To Catch a Predator: Potential Predators Adapt to Recent Stings" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

"Long Beach, Calif. — 22-year-old Corye Blagg is walking into Dateline’s undercover house in Long Beach, California, a house with 15 hidden cameras. They’re recording every move he makes. Blagg, an ex-Marine, works for a computer company in San Diego, and just drove 100 miles to get here. Why?  Blagg had chatted on line with someone he thinks is a 13-year-old— and he says he wants her to be his girlfriend. Blaggca (chat transcript): All I’m missing is a sweetheart to share my love with. But Blagg is really chatting with a decoy working for Perverted-Justice,an organization that exposes men who sexually target minors on-line.  Perverted-Justice works as a consultant for Dateline—setting up computer profiles, and pretending to be underage teens interested in sex. Remember, he’s 22 years old, and the decoy says she’s a 13-year-old female."

Dateline NBC  2007-02-06

XII-"To Catch a Predator: Scary Chats and a Repeat 'Predator'" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

Long Beach, Calif. — We’ve always been aware that the men coming into our undercover houses could be dangerous, but as we set up our “To Catch A Predator” operation in Long Beach, California, the very first man who arrives has us especially worried. 29 year-old Michael Warrecker, an unemployed computer technician uses the frightening screen name “can_i_rape_you_anally.” He thinks he’s coming to meet a girl who said she was 13. What Warrecker apparently doesn’t know, is he’s really been chatting with an adult decoy from Perverted-Justice. That’s an online watchdog group Dateline uses as a consultant to do what it normally does, go into chat rooms, mostly at Yahoo and AOL, set up computer profiles, and—in this case —pretend to be children—under the age of 14 who are interested in sex.  In his online chat, Warrecker tells the decoy, “Maybe we should hook up...” and says he would like to have anal sex with her. The decoy says: “Ouch. I think that would hurt a lot.”

Dateline NBC  2007-01-30

XI-"To Catch a Predator: Prominent Men Caught in Petaluma Sting" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

PETALUMA, CALIF.— We set up a house where a young teen is supposed to be home alone. Like moths to a flame, potential sex predators can’t stay away. That is of course until they see me. Even though millions of people have seen our series and we’ve caught 150 men, in this latest investigation, our seventh one,  we have one of our largest turnouts ever.  29 men show up at this upscale house in Petaluma, California in just three days. We’ve rigged it with hidden cameras—the street, driveway, garage, alley and every inch of the backyard are covered.  But our guests have no idea they’re being recorded. Inside the house, members of the online watchdog group Perverted-Justice are in chat rooms posing as young teens. Dateline has paid the organization a consulting fee. The PJ members are pretending to be 12- and 13-year-olds who are interested in sex and whose parents are away. If a man in a chat room hits on one of the decoys and proposes sex, he’ll be given the address of this house and invited over. Dateline hired an 18-year-old actress to play the part of the 12- or 13-year-old home alone...and the men seem happy to see her.

Dateline NBC  2006-10-06

X-"To Catch a Predator: Potential Predators in Petaluma" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

Petaluma, Calif. — A girl appears to be home alone and looking for company. She keeps waving men into the garage... and they keep following her all the way to the backyard where she offers them a drink. Anyone watching this scene repeat itself over and over might be wondering what’s going on. The girl is an 18-year-old actress hired by Dateline.  She’s inviting suspected sex predators to sit at a bar in a backyard that is wired with hidden cameras. Decoy: Where do you work? Gopi:  I work in Apple. Decoy: Oh, so you sell fruit? Gopi: Sorry? Decoy: You sell fruit? Gopi: I’m a software engineer. Decoy: Oh, software, oh, like the computer.  Oh.  (Laughter) Gopi: Yep.  Yep. She chats with the men making them feel more at ease and then I come out. Chris Hansen, Dateline Correspondent (walks out):  So you had quite the commute today, huh?  Why don’t you have a seat over by the bar there.  How’s it going?  Please sit down.  Did you enjoy your drink? It’s all part of Dateline’s latest investigation into online sex predators.  As in the past, men from all walks of life show up. A respected doctor and a carpenter who gave us the most revealing confession we’ve ever heard.

Dateline NBC  2006-09-29

IX-"To Catch a Predator: Going the Distance" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

"In community after community, vulnerable young teenagers are still at risk from grown men online. On Sept. 22, Friday, our hidden cameras are in Georgia. This time among the suspected predators caught on tape are three military men — two served in Iraq. Now they could be serving time in prison. Again, we want to warn you, some of what you'll read below is explicit. FORTSON, GA. — Even when men know it’s against the law, know there’s a chance they’ll be apprehended, men still show up at a house where they were told a child is home alone and willing to have sex with them.  And the number of men who continue to arrive at the door during each undercover operation is alarming—like our latest investigation (the sixth one), this time in Harris county, Georgia.  We’ve rigged this house with 12 hidden cameras— five inside and seven outside. From a control room inside the house a crew operates the cameras and records a man’s every move from the moment he drives up to the house. We’ve hired a young-looking 19-year-old to be play the part of a young girl—a decoy who will invite the men in. Meet 24-year-old Reymundo Anguiano. He thinks he’s here to see a 14-year-old girl named Diane. He met her online just hours ago in an AOL chat room. To give you an idea why he might be here, take a look at what he said online. Using the screen name truesweetguy69, he asks a decoy—an adult pretending to be 14 --  if she’s good at giving oral sex. The decoy says “nobody ever complained, didn’t do it lots but i know how to do it.” Then truesweetguy69 asks if he shows the girl a picture of his penis would she give him oral sex. The decoy, who he thinks is 14 says “oh yeah.” And sure enough, truesweetguy69 sends her a picture of his genitals."

Dateline NBC  2006-09-22

VIII-"To Catch a Predator: They're still showing up" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

"Like moths to the flame, they just keep coming. It's been more than two years now since we first began our series of reports investigating online sex predators. Five different states... 129 men exposed. On Dateline Wednesday, investigation number six. This time, we've set up our hidden cameras in a rented house in rural Georgia. And once again, even men who've seen our reports show up at the door.  We should let you know, some of what you'll see and read below is explicit. This report first aired on NBC, Sept. 13. FORTSON, GA. — On a stormy summer night, on a winding country road, a potential sex predator slowly approaches a house where he believes a child is waiting for him.  He’s driven a long way for this meeting- almost two hours. But the driver won’t find a young girl inside—instead a Dateline investigative team awaits his arrival. Why is this man making such a long trip in the dead of night? Perhaps because he believes a 15-year-old girl is alone inside ready to have sex with him. But his journey didn’t begin that day— it began more than a week earlier when he entered a Yahoo Georgia chat room and decided to hit on a decoy, an adult posing as a 15-year-old. It didn’t take long for the 23-year-old, screenname “scoobydooat101”, to steer the chat towards sex. He asked all kinds of sexual questions like “What positions have you tried? U like doggie?” "Scoobydoo" says “Well if we ever have sex, I’ll introduce it to you. But I switch positions a lot, so you’re bound to learn a few new tricks.” Now the man with the bag of tricks is walking in our house.  Wehired a very young looking 19-year-old to play the part of the girl . . ."

Dateline NBC  2006-09-13

VII-"To Catch a Predator: A Cyber Twilight Zone in Ft. Myers, Fla." - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

"FT. MYERS, FLA.— A 49-year-old man talks to a teenager he's never met before. He probably believes she’s the 15-year-old he’s been chatting online with for the last week and a half. Actress, decoy (hidden camera footage): Hey, I just have to change my shirt real quick, but just come in and watch some TV. I’ll be right there. Michael Wilusz: Okay. What Michael Wilusz doesn’t know is she’s really a 19-year-old actress we hired to be a decoy. He walked into a Dateline hidden camera investigation. Chris Hansen, Dateline correspondent (walking in): Come on in over here. Have a seat there. Wilusz: Oh wow. (laughs, eating cookies). Chris Hansen, Dateline correspondent: Hungry? How does it taste? Wilusz: Great. Wow, these are home-baked? Hansen: Do you want time to finish your cookie? Wilusz: Not really. Hansen: So you’re good if I ask you a couple of questions? Wilusz: Yeah. It’s the latest in our continuing series of investigations into online sex predators. For the first time we’re in the south: Fort Myers, Florida. Hilton Daniels is Fort Myers chief of police . . ."

Dateline NBC  2006-05-31

V-"To Catch a Predator: Admitted child abuser caught in sting" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

"This report airs May 3, Wednesday, 9 p.m.. It's the latest in Dateline's month-long series of undercover investigations: children at risk from grown men online. We're back in small town America, where the investigation leads us to one of the most disturbing cases we've ever found. A warning: some of what you're about to read is explicit. GREENVILLE, OHIO. — It’s was a busy three days here in Darke County, Ohio. A house, equipped with hidden cameras inside and out, has become the destination for men hoping to hook up with young teens they met online. From their Internet chat, it’s clear that most of the men are here for one thing: sex.  But as soon as they see me, they know there’s been a change of plans and their stories change as well. Most folks who live here think that this area would be immune to this sort of activity, and think “It wouldn’t happen here.” But as we showed you last week, we find  in rural America what we found in every other location— men lining up at our door, ready to keep their date for sex with a minor. A 30-year-old, screenname “Meatrocket8,” starts chatting online with a girl posing as a 15-year-old virgin.  The decoy referring to her virginity says “I bet you’re scared of that.” “Meatrocket8” says, “Actually you find it quite attractive. I’m honored to be considered the candidate for your first time.” Later as the chat gets more graphic, he asks for her address . . ."

Dateline NBC  2006-05-03

VI-"To Catch a Predator: Caught on camera, but not surprised" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

This report airs May 17, Wednesday, 9 p.m.: This month, millions of people have been watching our investigations into computer sex predators — among them, some of the suspected predators themselves.  And what's most surprising is that even knowing that they may be walking into a sting is not enough to keep some of them away. Tonight, we're back in Florida, where we started our investigation last week.  We want to remind you that some of what you'll see and read is explicit.  FT. MYERS, FLA. — Like all our previous investigations, the potential predators in Ft. Myers, Fla. kept us busy. Some are surprisingly candid... Donald Morrison: They arrested me for possessing child pornography cause I had nude pictures of her on my computer. They ended up dropping the charges. Others tell us stories we’ve heard before... Thomas Coffen: I just came over to say "hi." That was it. They all had something in common: everyone of them chatted online about having sex with a person posing as a young teen, made a date to meet, and then showed up at our undercover house. Chief Hilton Daniels, Ft. Myers, Fla. police: A number of these individuals traveled quite a ways. I believe the furthest one drove 223 miles, to Fort Myers to have sex with a child. Chief Daniels says it’s frightening to think what would have happened if there really had been a child home alone.

Dateline NBC  2006-05-17

III-"To Catch a Predator" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA — A month ago, Dateline launched its third investigation into a growing national epidemic—grown men trolling the Internet, many looking for sex with children. This time, to expose them, we set up multiple hidden cameras in a house in Southern California. A decoy coaxes the men in, but instead of finding a 12- or 13-year-old home alone, the men looking for sex will meet me. Here’s an example of the kind of confrontation we’re in for: A 37-year-old, Kurt Lemke, a truck driver, calls himself “haloballfan” online. He thinks he’s here to meet a 13-year-old boy named Dave, but we really send him a decoy photo. During his chat, he makes plans to give the boy oral sex.

Dateline NBC  2006-02-03

II-"To Catch a Predator: Catching potential Internet sex predators" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

In any home where there are kids with computers, there are parents with concerns. Teenagers can spend hours chatting online, but who are they chatting with? On the other end of that instant message could be a complete stranger — or a sexual predator. It's a dangerous side of the Internet, one that's growing and many children are at risk. So we went undercover, filling a house with hidden cameras. Soon, a long line of visitors came knocking, expecting to find a young teenager they'd been chatting with on the Internet, home alone. Instead, they found Dateline. We want to warn you some of what you'll read is explicit.  But parents need to know what their kids can confront when they sit down at the computer. The problem seems to be getting worse — and the profile of the suspected predators more frightening. Just this past summer, an editor for “Weekly Reader,” a newspaper for school children was arrested for using the Internet to solicit sex with a 14-year-old boy. He pleaded not guilty. And this past spring, a New York City cop, a youth officer, was also caught attempting to meet a child online for sex. He pleaded guilty last month “to attempted use of a child in a sexual performance” and agreed to serve six months in prison. Law enforcement officials estimate that 50,000 predators are online at any given moment. And the number of reports of children being solicited for sex is growing says Michele Collins of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.

Dateline NBC  2005-11-10

I-To Catch a Predator: Dangers children face online" - Chris Hansen - NBC Dateline

Instant messaging on the computer has become the phone for kids today. Children spend hours chatting online with their friends, and sometimes with strangers. A recent study found that one in five children online is approached by a sexual predator, a predator who may try to set up a face-to-face meeting. In a Dateline hidden camera investigation, correspondent Chris Hansen catches some of these men in the act. Also, scroll to the bottom of the page for the software mentioned in the story and more resources. To follow the trail of an Internet predator prowling for children, from seduction in a chat room to a face-to-face meeting, Dateline rented a house, wired it with hidden cameras, and enlisted the help of an online vigilante group called "Perverted Justice." Volunteers from the group posed as teens in chat rooms, saying they were home alone and interested in sex. Within hours there were men literally lining up at our door. The men who turned up in our investigation included a New York City firefighter and a man with a history of mental illness and a criminal record. And they all had something in common: the same excuse. Just about every man who came to our house said it was the first time he had done something like this and most claimed they really had no intention of having sex with a minor. Here's an excerpt of what we found: Steve, 35, thinks he's got a hot date with a 14-year-old girl. Instead he'll be meeting Dateline NBC correspondent Chris Hansen. At first he seems to think I am a police officer. I haven’t told him yet that I'm a television reporter and at this point he has no idea he's being videotaped.

Dateline NBC  2004-11-11

"Planned Parenthood Agreed to Accept Race-Motivated Donations" - Josiah Ryan - CNS News

(CNSNews.com) - According to telephone conversations taped by a student pro-life publication, The Advocate, at the University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA), Planned Parenthood locations in Ohio and Idaho agreed to accept money targeted at minorities even when racist intentions were expressed.Planned Parenthood of Central Ohio confirmed to Cybercast News Service that the telephone conversation with a presumed donor occurred in mid-summer 2007, adding that it was not the policy of Planned Parenthood to accept donations specifically to underwrite abortions among minority women.James O' Keefe, a first-year law student and an advisor for the The Advocate, made the telephone call posing as a potential donor to Planned Parenthood of Ohio.The tape begins with a portion of the call in which O'Keefe confirms the location of the Planned Parenthood facility in Columbus, Ohio. According to Lila Rose, the editor-in-chief of The Advocate and a sophomore at UCLA, the tape then cuts to the relevant portion of the call in which O'Keefe offers a donation:

CNS News  2008-07-07

"Lobbyists Offer Dictators a Door to D.C." - Neal Conan - Talk of the Nation NPR

"Foreign governments with poor records on human rights, democracy, and freedom of press still manage to find friends in high places in Washington. Ken Silverstein, Washington editor of Harper's Magazine, went undercover to find out just how far some lobbyists go to promote the interests of dictators."

Talk of the Nation  2007-06-19

"'Our Costly Dilemma’ and welfare revisited, 50 years later" (Ed May) - Buffalo Evening News

“Newburgh, N. Y., June 26 — Right wing activists in this small upstate community moved one step closer to criminalizing the welfare system by passing a 13-point plan which would begin welfare reform by forcing new applicants to undergo a police interrogation complete with fingerprinting. Hence forward, new applicants to welfare in this community will be treated ‘like immigrants.’ ” Is this a news item from the future of the “tea party” movement? It might sound like it. But actually it is a brief synopsis of a story that appeared in 1961. The “relief revolt” helped bring attention to the work of one local reporter who gained national fame for his analysis of the welfare “dilemma.” Fifty years ago, The Buffalo Evening News published the results of a six-month investigation of welfare in Erie County conducted by News reporter Edgar May. May worked undercover as a caseworker for the Erie County Department of Social Welfare in order to gather research for the 14-part series entitled, ”Our Costly Dilemma.” Five decades have passed since the Pulitzer Prize-winning series was published, and yet our “welfare dilemma” appears to be as costly — and divisive — as ever. The year of publication, 1960, seems to have been a high water mark for American optimism, in retrospect. The problem of welfare dependency seemed one that could be contained, if not entirely solved.

Buffalo Evening News  2010-06-13

"FBI agents pose as photographers during Aryan Nation trial" - Louis Rolfes - News Media and the Law

Dozens of reporters descended on the small town of Coeur d'Alene, Idaho to cover the trial in August. In all, more than 60 journalists including reporters from The New York Times, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times and National Public Radio requested credentials.The few protesters who appeared were demonstrating against the Southern Poverty Law Center's civil suit against the Aryan Nation and Butler on behalf of a mother and son who were assaulted by armed guards after driving past the group's compound. They said their car backfired, and the guards, thinking they had been shot at, chased them. Two guards were sentenced to prison for the attack.Capt. Ben Wolfinger, a spokesman for the sheriff's department, granted seven press passes to FBI and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agents monitoring protestors outside the courtroom.Tom Clouse, a reporter for The Spokesman-Review, uncovered the plan and wrote about it for the newspaper. Clouse suspected the motive was to allow undercover agents to photograph suspected Aryan Nations members. Clouse said Wolfinger, not the county sheriff, suggested the FBI use media credentials to blend in.During the first day of the trial, Clouse said the large number of journalists made it difficult to spot the imposters. However, as the trial moved into the second and third day, journalists began taking notice of some photographers' strange behavior.

News Media and The Law  2000-10-30

"SPJ, RTNDA protest FBI agents' posing as journalists" - Freedom Forum Staff and Associated Press

 Two journalism organizations have criticized the Federal Bureau of Investigation for an incident in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, last week in which federal agents posed as journalists. The FBI agents were trying to blend into a crowd so they could photograph neo-Nazi skinheads rallying outside the Coeur d'Alene courthouse, where the leader of the Aryan Nations white-supremacist group was on trial for civil rights violations. The agents were uncovered by real journalists covering the trial of Richard Butler. The Kootenai County sheriff's department revoked the agents' false credentials on Aug. 30. Sheriff's Capt. Ben Wolfinger admitted he initially directed seven agents to obtain media passes so they would look like news photographers covering the trial. "I was surprised it became an issue," he said. Advocates for the news media said it is dangerous for law officers to pose as journalists. Such deceptions could lead to physical threats against reporters, who are not armed, said Kyle Elyse Niederpruem, national president of the Society of Professional Journalists.  

Associated PressFreedom Forum  2000-09-05

XXI-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 All my life I’ve regarded Eliza’s stunt of crossing the Ohio on the floating ice floes, with bloodhounds baying at her heels, as a pretty heroic adventure. Not any more. The night I came up out of the deep South in a Jim Crow bus, I’d have been glad to take a chance crossing on the ice if anything had happened to stall our jolting chariot on the Kentucky shore. And there’d have been no need of any bloodhounds to put me into high gear. We rolled out of Kentucky across that old Ohio River bridge into Cincinnati - into safety and freedom and peace. Again I was free with all the rights of an American citizen. Again I was no, not white. Not yet. It wasn’t that easy. Down South my friends had done too good a job of making me into a Negro. For many days I’d been looking forward to an elaborate meal in a luxurious restaurant with fancy food and prices and service and attention. I found one. And then -take it or leave it-I didn’t go in. I found a little lunch counter and ate there.  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-09-01

XX-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 Strangely enough, the Negro in the South doesn’t hate the white man. It could well be that my four weeks as a Negro in the deep South falls grievously short in equipping me as an authority on the subject. But I’ll still stand on my opinion. Remember that I talked at length with the real leaders of the Negro not all of them by any means - but with scores of them in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee. They are the men on the firing line who are battling for Negro rights and Negro progress where it’s dangerous to do it. They are the local heads of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, ministers, business men, college professors, doctors, lawyers, school teachers, Negro plantation owners, men of substance and influence in their own communities among both whites and blacks. I wasn’t a white man interviewing them, remember. I was a Negro from the North, a friend of Walter White, executive secretary of the NAACP. I was a guest in their homes. We sat for hours over their dinner tables. I slept in their guest rooms. We were just a group of Negroes talking things over.  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-31

XIX-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 Atlanta Negroes like to boast that their town is the "Black Capital of America." They react with horror and indignation to outrages against Negroes in the smaller towns of the South. They contribute thousands to defense funds to protect the rights of their people or avenge their wanton murder. For hours they’d sit and assure me that "It can’t happen here." But the bloody record of Negro killings in their own town proves them wrong. Reluctantly they’ll finally admit it. That’s another thing I’ll never understand - the intense local patriotism of the Southern Negro. If he lives in Atlanta, then Atlanta’s the finest town in the world. And Georgia is the greatest state. He wouldn’t live anywhere else. And the Mississippi Negro will pound the tale and tell him he doesn’t know what he’s talking about. As a temporary black man I’ll tell the world right now that there isn’t a square foot of the South that I like and if I were permanently black, if you ever caught me south of the Smith and Wesson line you could shoot me. But if you’re black it isn’t too hard to get yourself thoroughly killed by a white cop, or a street car motorman or just a plain everyday gun totin’ citizen, in this "liberal" town of Atlanta.  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-30

XVIII-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 Here and there and now and then in the deep South you’ll find a Negro with a shrewd Yankee instinct for business, who is smart enough to turn the Jim Crow obsession of the southerner to his own substantial profit. And quite frequently that profit stems not from his own oppressed people, but from the lordly white man. I know at least one Negro who is an operator in a big way in downtown Atlanta business property. He works through a dependable white lawyer and his name rarely if ever appears in a transaction. Usually you’ll find Negro real estate operators dealing in white occupied property have to work that way. But in one up and coming Georgia city we found a Negro real estate man who works it exactly in reverse. He’s one of the richest men, black or white, in his county. We stopped over with him one night. Nowhere but in the South with its inviolable Jim Crow tradition could you hear a success story like this one.  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-28

XVII-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 For three hot and dusty weeks and 3,000 hot and dusty miles I’ve been looking forward to Brunswick and Savannah; the broad white beaches of the Georgia coast and a couple days of ocean swimming. All right - here are Savannah and Brunswick. Here are the broad white beaches. Here is the wide blue Atlantic Ocean. But there’ll be no sea bathing for me. I’ve dragged those swim trunks all these miles for nothing. And why? Because this is a strictly Jim Crow ocean and I’m black. Along all the hundred miles of Georgia’s coast line with its scores of beautiful island and shore beaches, there’s not a single foot where a Negro can stick a toe in salt water. North and south, South Carolina and Florida have public and private beaches reserved for us black people. Not Georgia. Georgia is going to keep her share of the Atlantic pure and undefiled - and lily white.  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-27

XV-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

In this little, straggling Negro cemetery, its graves weed-grown, its headstones leaning drunkenly, stands a magnificent sarcophagus of white Alabama marble. It is an astonishing thing to find here on the edge of this Mississippi Delta town of Clarksdale. Quite likely there’s nothing like it all up and down the Delta in either white or Negro cemetery.Within it lie the bodies of a dark woman and her baby, both dead in the hour of the baby’s birth. Proudly, Dr. P. W. Hill, wealthy Negro dentist, shows us through this gleaming mausoleum where his wife and baby lie and where some day he too will rest.In all simplicity he regards it only as his tribute to the ones he loved.

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-25

XIV-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 Black of the rich earth and green of the springing cotton plants stretch from horizon to horizon. This is the fabulous Mississippi Delta, last outpost of feudalism in America. Here is land more fertile than any other in the world. Here close to half a million Negroes toil from childhood to the grave in the service of King Cotton, from sunup to sundown if they share-crop, from 6 to 6 if they work by the day. Here are feudal baronies that run from 5,000 to 20,000 acres, where as many as 6,000 sharecropper families, wives and children, parents and grandparents follow the one mule plow and the chopping hoe all their lives. On these tight little Delta principalities "The Man" (the landlord), is the middle justice, the high and the low. Mississippi law stops dead in its tracks at their boundaries. No sheriff, no peace officer takes a man, black or white off these acres until "The Man" tells him he may  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-24

XIII-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 Here on the outskirts of the pleasant, thriving little Georgia town of Bluffton in Clay county I go to school again. And what a school! This dilapidated, sagging old shack, leaning and lop-sided as its makeshift foundations give way, is the lordly white’s conception of a schoolhouse for Negroes. This leaking old wreck of a shanty must be nearly half a century old. The warped old clapboards are falling off. Holes bigger than your hand give permanent cross-ventilation. There are no desks, no seats but rude benches. Two rough tables serve as desks. A few dog-eared school books are scattered on the tables. A "blackboard,"’ apparently home made, just a sheet of cardboard about two by three feet, is nailed to the bare studding. Only redeeming feature of this thing called a school is the teacher. Tall and spare, gentle and soft spoken, earnest and intelligent, she reminds you of a typical New England school-marm with her sharp aquiline features - except for a deeper sun tan than one could ever get on a beach.  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-23

XII-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 Right here this Jim Crow thing gets to the point where it’s just plain silly - if a thing so replete with heartbreak and tragedy can ever be properly called silly. Here we sit in the waiting room of Dr. - well let’s say Dr. Bradford Gordon. He’s got that kind of a New England sounding name but why mention it here, when it might be the cause of getting him Kluxed. The room is filling up after the noon hour, white farmers in from the country with their wives and youngsters to get their teeth "fixed up." Other, better-dressed whites, men and women, plainly city dwellers. And a handful of Negro mothers with their children. No segregation here. When Dr. Gordon appears he proves to be very, very black. He Is a towering figure of a man, graduate of a famous northern university and a star on its football team. The man seems to beam with kindliness and courtesy. If he isn’t a gentleman, I never saw one. We chat a while.  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-21

XI-"I Was a Negro in the South for 30 Days" - Ray Sprigle - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

 Given the right kind of white neighbors, the right kind of a community, the right kind of land and a terrific capacity for hard work, once in a while a Negro can do pretty well for himself in the deep South. Witness David E. Jackson down here on the outskirts of Adel Ga., in Cook county. But remember, too, that Dave is one in a million. So far as I know he’s one in ten million. Dave Jackson owns and farms 1,000 acres of some of the best land in Georgia. He owns two blocks of business property in Adel, and a score of houses. He’s a stockholder in the newly formed bank. He lives in a 10-room modern home. He runs four tractors and four big trailer trucks. He operates two big produce warehouses in Adel. He buys and sells 100,000 bushels of corn every year in addition to the thousands of bushels he raises. He ships corn as far north as Tennessee and North Carolina. Last year he shipped 15 carloads of watermelons and he can’t recall how many trailer truck loads of early vegetables. He raises cotton and tobacco and hogs, 500 hogs last year, 400 this year.  

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette  1948-08-20